William Tweed

Tweed, William Marcy

William Marcy Tweed, 1823–78, American politician and Tammany leader, b. New York City. A bookkeeper, he became (1848) a volunteer fireman and as a result acquired influence in his ward. He was an alderman (1852–53) and sat (1853–55) in Congress. By 1857 he was a power in Tammany. As chairman of the Tammany general committee and later as grand sachem, "Boss" Tweed gained absolute power in the city Democratic party, controlling party nominations and party patronage. He also became a state senator in 1868 and extended his influence into state politics. He engaged in various business deals, and through political services to Jay Gould and James Fisk he became a director of the Erie RR. But it was chiefly from the rich plums plucked through the control of New York City expenditures that Tweed made his great fortune. For a time the Tweed Ring, consisting of Tweed and his henchmen—Peter Sweeny, city chamberlain; Richard B. Connolly, city comptroller; and A. Oakey Hall, mayor—controlled the city without interference. They defrauded the city to the extent of at least $30 million through padded and fictitious charges and also profited extravagantly from tax favors. Votes were openly bought and other nefarious vote-getting methods were employed. City judges became notoriously corrupt. Attempts within Tammany to oust the Tweed Ring failed, and in 1870 Tweed forced through the state legislature a charter that greatly increased the powers of the ring. Tweed maintained personal popularity because of his openhandedness and charity to the poor. The immediate cause of Tweed's downfall was the publication in the New York Times of evidence of wholesale graft revealed by M. J. O'Rourke, a new county bookkeeper. The effective cartoons of Thomas Nast aroused public indignation. A committee of 70, organized to fight Tammany, elected most of its candidates in 1871, although Tweed himself was returned to the state senate. Largely through the efforts of Samuel J. Tilden, Tweed was tried for felony, but the jury could not reach a verdict. In a second trial he was convicted and given a 12-year prison sentence; this, however, was reduced by a higher court, and he served one year. Arrested once more on other charges, he escaped and went to Cuba and then to Spain, but was extradited (1876) to the United States. He died in prison two years later.

See D. T. Lynch, "Boss" Tweed (1927, repr. 1974); W. A. Bales, Tiger in the Streets (1962); S. J. Mandelbaum, Boss Tweed's New York (1965); A. B. Callow, The Tweed Ring (1966); L. Hershkowitz, Tweed's New York: A Closer Look (1977); K. D. Ackerman, Boss Tweed (2005).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Boss Tweed: The Story of a Grim Generation
Denis Tilden Lynch.
Boni and Liveright, 1927
City Bosses in the United States: A Study of Twenty Municipal Bosses
Harold B. Zink.
Duke University Press, 1930
Librarian’s tip: "'Honorable' William M. Tweed" begins on p. 96
The New York City Draft Riots: Their Significance for American Society and Politics in the Age of the Civil War
Iver Bernstein.
Oxford University Press, 1990
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 6 "The Rise and Decline of Tweed's Tammany Hall"
FREE! The Boss and the Machine: A Chronicle of the Politicians and Party Organization
Samuel P. Orth.
Yale University Press, 1919
Librarian’s tip: Chap. V "Tammany Hall"
Mightier Than the Sword: How the News Media Have Shaped American History
Rodger Streitmatter.
Westview Press, 1997
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 4 "Attacking Municipal Corruption: The Tweed Ring"
The Tiger: The Rise and Fall of Tammany Hall
Oliver E. Allen.
Addison-Wesley, 1993
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 4 "The Ring"
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