Brown v. Board of Education

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans.

Kans. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954. Linda Brown was denied admission to her local elementary school in Topeka because she was black. When, combined with several other cases, her suit reached the Supreme Court, that body, in an opinion by recently appointed Chief Justice Earl Warren, broke with long tradition and unanimously overruled the "separate but equal" doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson, holding for the first time that de jure segregation in the public schools violated the principle of equal protection under the law guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Responding to legal and sociological arguments presented by NAACP lawyers led by Thurgood Marshall, the court stressed that the "badge of inferiority" stamped on minority children by segregation hindered their full development no matter how "equal" physical facilities might be. After hearing further arguments on implementation, the court declared in 1955 that schools must be desegregated "with all deliberate speed."

Restricted in application to de jure (legally imposed) segregation, the Brown rule was applied mainly to Southern school systems. After strong resistance, which led to such incidents as the 1957 Little Rock, Ark., school crisis, integration spread slowly across the South, under court orders and the threat of loss of federal funds for noncompliance. The Brown decision gave tremendous impetus to the civil-rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, and hastened integration in public facilities and accommodations. Segregation maintained by more subtle and intractable forces, however, has remained an important element in American society. De facto school segregation, caused by residential housing patterns and various other conditions rather than by law, has been attacked by the busing of students and other mechanisms. The landmark decision is commemorated by the Brown v. Board of Education National Historic Site in Topeka (see National Parks and Monuments, table).

See studies by J. T. Pattterson (2001) and M. Minow (2010).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Brown v. Board of Education: A Civil Rights Milestone and Its Troubled Legacy
James T. Patterson.
Oxford University Press, 2001
Brown v. Board of Education and the Civil Rights Movement
Michael J. Klarman.
Oxford University Press, 2007
The Ghost of Jim Crow: How Southern Moderates Used Brown v. Board of Education to Stall Civil Rights
Anders Walker.
Oxford University Press, 2009
Science for Segregation: Race, Law, and the Case against Brown v. Board of Education
John P. Jackson Jr.
New York University Press, 2005
What Brown v. Board of Education Should Have Said: The Nation's Top Legal Experts Rewrite America's Landmark Civil Rights Decision
Jack M. Balkin.
New York University Press, 2001
Brown v. Board of Education: Separate but Equal?
Susan Dudley Gold.
Benchmark Books, 2005
Educational Freedom in Urban America: Brown v. Board after Half a Century
David Salisbury; Casey Lartigue Jr.
Cato Institute, 2004
Silent Covenants: Brown v. Board of Education and the Unfulfilled Hopes for Racial Reform
Derrick Bell.
Oxford University Press, 2004
Desegregation from Brown to Alexander: An Exploration of Supreme Court Strategies
Stephen L. Wasby; Anthony A. D'Amato; Rosemary Metrailer.
Southern Illinois University Press, 1977
Forced Justice: School Desegregation and the Law
David J. Armor.
Oxford University Press, 1995
Librarian’s tip: "The Brown Decision and the Civil Rights Act" p. 18
Temporarily FREE! The Civil Rights Movement
Peter B. Levy.
Greenwood Press, 1998
Librarian’s tip: "Brown V. Board" p. 86
Political and Social Foundation of Education
Frederick M. Wirt; Michael W. Kirst.
McCutchan Publishing, 1975
Librarian’s tip: "Input and Conversion in the Brown Cases" p. 177, "Feedback to the Brown Decisions" p. 180
Reading, Writing & Race: The Desegregation of the Charlotte Schools
Davison M. Douglas.
University of North Carolina Press, 1995
Librarian’s tip: Chap. I "Challenging Separate and Unequal Education in North Carolina before Brown"
A Very New Lawyer's First Case: Brown V. Board of Education
Cound, John J.
Constitutional Commentary, Vol. 15, No. 1, Spring 1998
The Judicial Betrayal of Blacks - Again: The Supreme Court's Destruction of the Hopes Raised by Brown V. Board of Education
Jones, Nathaniel R.
Fordham Urban Law Journal, Vol. 32, No. 1, December 2004
Historical Dictionary of School Segregation and Desegregation: The American Experience
Jeffrey A. Raffel.
Greenwood Press, 1998
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