National Guard

National Guard, U.S. militia. The militia is authorized by the Constitution of the United States, which also defines the militia's functions and the federal and state role. Article 1, Section 8 provides that Congress shall have the power to call forth "the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions." Congress was entrusted with organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, but the appointment of officers and the training of the militia were reserved to the states. Further provisions were made in the Second Amendment. In peacetime the National Guard is placed under state jurisdiction and can be used by governors to quell local disturbances, as in Newark and Detroit riots in 1967, and to help in times of local disasters, such as floods and hurricanes. In times of war or other emergencies the National Guard is absorbed into the active service of the United States and the president is commander in chief. The National Guard has been partially mobilized during the Korean War, the Berlin crisis of 1961, and the Persian Gulf War and for peacekeeping in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The National Guard's equipment and personnel are standardized to conform with U.S. army regulations. Enlistment is voluntary; compensation, paid by the federal government, is given for periods of drill and field training. The Air National Guard was formed in 1947.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Citizen Warriors: America's National Guard and Reserve Forces ☀ the Politics of National Security
Stephen M. Duncan.
Presidio Press, 1997
The Rise of the National Guard: The Evolution of the American Militia, 1865-1920
Jerry Cooper.
University of Nebraska Press, 1997
State Defense Forces and Homeland Security
Tulak, Arthur N.; Kraft, Robert W.; Silbaugh, Don.
Parameters, Vol. 33, No. 4, Winter 2003
Transformation and Homeland Security: Dual Challenges for the US Army
Kelly, Terrence K.
Parameters, Vol. 33, No. 2, Summer 2003
The National Guard and National Defense: The Mobilization of the Guard in World War II
Robert Bruce Sligh; Roger Beaumont.
Praeger Publishers, 1992
America's Armed Forces: A Handbook of Current and Future Capabilities
Sam C. Sarkesian; Robert E. Connor Jr.
Greenwood Press, 1996
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of the National Guard begins on p. 87
The Rock of Anzio: From Sicily to Dachau, a History of the 45th Infantry Division
Flint Whitlock.
Westview Press, 1998
Librarian’s tip: Includes discussion of the National Guard in multiple chapters
Against the Specter of a Dragon: The Campaign for American Military Preparedness, 1914-1917
John Patrick Finnegan.
Greenwood Press, 1974
Librarian’s tip: Includes discussion of the National Guard in multiple chapters
African American Soldiers in the National Guard: Recruitment and Deployment during Peacetime and War
Charles Johnson Jr.
Greenwood Press, 1992
Excerpted from Reserves and Guard: A More Selective Service
Hochschild, Adam.
The Washington Monthly, January 2000
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