George B. McClellan

McClellan, George Brinton

George Brinton McClellan, 1826–85, Union general in the American Civil War, b. Philadelphia. After graduating (1846) from West Point, he served with distinction in the Mexican War and later worked on various engineering projects, notably on the survey (1853–54) for a Northern Pacific RR route across the Cascade Range. Resigning from the army in 1857, he was a railroad official until the outbreak of the Civil War. In May, 1861, McClellan was made commander of the Dept. of the Ohio and a major general in the regular army. He cleared the western part of Virginia of Confederates (June–July, 1861) and consequently, after the Union defeat in the first battle of Bull Run, was given command of the troops in and around Washington. In November he became general in chief. The administration, reflecting public opinion, pressed for an early offensive, but McClellan insisted on adequate training and equipment for his army. In Mar., 1862, he was relieved of his supreme command, but he retained command of the Army of the Potomac, with which in Apr., 1862, he initiated the Peninsular campaign. The collapse of this campaign after the Seven Days battles was charged by many to his overcaution. In Aug., 1862, most of McClellan's troops were reassigned to the Army of Virginia under John Pope. After Pope's defeat at the second battle of Bull Run, McClellan again reorganized the Union forces, and in the Antietam campaign he checked Robert E. Lee's first invasion of the North. He was slow, however, to follow Lee across the Potomac and in Nov., 1862, was removed from his command. In 1864, McClellan was the Democratic candidate for President, although he rejected the party's peace platform. McClellan's candidacy caused the administration much uneasiness, but President Lincoln was reelected by a substantial majority. McClellan resigned from the army on the day of the election and afterward traveled extensively with his family in Europe. He was later chief engineer of the New York City department of docks and was governor of New Jersey (1878–81). Despite his faults "Little Mack" was an able general and was loved and trusted by his men of the Army of the Potomac. He wrote McClellan's Own Story (1887) in defense of his military record.

See The Civil War Papers of George B. McClellan: Selected Correspondence, 1860–1865 (ed. by S. W. Sears, 1989); biographies by W. S. Myers (1934), H. J. Eckenrode and B. Conrad (1942), and W. W. Hassler, Jr. (1957); T. H. Williams, McClellan, Sherman, and Grant (1962).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

George B. McClellan and Civil War History: In the Shadow of Grant and Sherman
Thomas J. Rowland.
Kent State University Press, 1998
George B. McClellan, the Man Who Saved the Union
H. J. Eckenrode; Bryan Conrad.
University of North Carolina Press, 1941
Lincoln's War Cabinet
Burton J. Hendrick.
Little, Brown, and Company, 1946
Librarian’s tip: Book Four "The Cabinet and McClellan"
Abraham Lincoln: A Biography
Benjamin P. Thomas.
Alfred A. Knopf, 1952
Librarian’s tip: Chap. XV "McClellan in Command"
McClellan and Halleck at War: The Struggle for Control of the Union War Effort in the West, November 1861-March 1862
Rafuse, Ethan S.
Civil War History, Vol. 49, No. 1, March 2003
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Turning Points of the Civil War
James A. Rawley.
University of Nebraska Press, 1989
Librarian’s tip: "Antietam" begins on p. 97
Death in September: The Antietam Campaign
Perry D. Jamieson.
McWhiney Foundation Press, 1995
Librarian’s tip: "George B. McClellan" begins on p. 20
FREE! Lincoln, Master of Men: A Study in Character
Alonzo Rothschild.
Houghton Mifflin, 1906
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of George B. McClellan begins on p. 327
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