Gerald Ford

Ford, Gerald Rudolph

Gerald Rudolph Ford, 1913–2006, 38th president of the United States (1974–77), b. Omaha, Nebr. He was originally named Leslie Lynch King, Jr., but his parents were divorced when he was two, and when his mother remarried he assumed the name of his stepfather. Admitted to the Michigan bar in 1941, he was a member (1949–73) of the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served as the Republican minority leader (1965–73). Ford gained a reputation as a loyal Republican who supported his party on virtually all issues. A consistent proponent of a large defense budget, he led the Republican opposition to the Great Society programs of President Lyndon B. Johnson. He was permanent chairman of the Republican National Convention in 1968 and 1972.

In Oct., 1973, Ford was nominated by President Richard Nixon to succeed the disgraced Spiro T. Agnew as vice president of the United States; on Dec. 6, 1973, he was sworn in, becoming the first person to be appointed to the office under the procedures specified by the 25th Amendment. As vice president, Ford traveled widely around the country, attempting to rally for the Nixon administration the support that had eroded as a result of the Watergate affair. His tenure as vice president was short, however; when Nixon resigned on Aug. 9, 1974, Ford became president. He pledged to continue Nixon's foreign policy and to work to curb inflation. One month later he issued a complete pardon to Nixon for all criminal acts perpetrated by Nixon while he was president. In the 1974 congressional elections the Republicans suffered substantial losses, attributable both to Watergate and to the economy. To deal with the economic recession, Ford proposed (1975) tax cuts, limited social spending (with continued high defense expenditure), and heavy taxation on imported oil. The Democratic Congress opposed many elements of the program. Ford was defeated by Democrat Jimmy Carter in the 1976 presidential election.

See Ford's Selected Speeches, ed. by M. V. Doyle (1973); biography by D. Brinkley (2007); C. Fitzgerald, ed., Gerald R. Ford (1988).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Gerald Ford and the Challenges of the 1970s
Yanek Mieczkowski.
University Press of Kentucky, 2005
Gerald R. Ford and the Politics of Post-Watergate America
Alexej Ugrinsky; Bernard J. Firestone.
Greenwood Press, vol.1, 1993
Gerald R. Ford and the Politics of Post-Watergate America
Bernard J. Firestone; Alexej Ugrinsky.
Greenwood Press, vol.2, 1993
The Great Debates: Carter vs. Ford, 1976
Sidney Kraus.
Indiana University Press, 1979
Conservatives in An Age of Change: The Nixon and Ford Administrations
James Reichley.
Brookings Institution, 1981
Executive Privilege in the Ford Administration: Prudence in the Exercise of Presidential Power
Rozell, Mark J.
Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 28, No. 2, Spring 1998
Missing the Bus: Gerald Ford and School Desegregation
McAndrews, Lawrence J.
Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 4, Fall 1997
Presidential Secrecy and Deception: Beyond the Power to Persuade
John M. Orman.
Greenwood Press, 1980
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 6 "Gerald Ford: The End of The Secret Presidency?"
The Press and the Modern Presidency: Myths and Mindsets from Kennedy to Election 2000
Louis W. Liebovich.
Praeger, 2001
Librarian’s tip: Chap. Six "Mr. Ford's Double-Edged Sword"
The Modern Presidency and Crisis Rhetoric
Amos Kiewe.
Praeger Publishers, 1994
Librarian’s tip: Chap. Six "The Coalitional Crisis of the Ford Presidency: The Pardons Reconsidered"
American Prince, American Pauper: The Contemporary Vice Presidency in Perspective
Marie D. Natoli.
Greenwood Press, 1985
Librarian’s tip: "The Ford Succession: Presidential Resignation" begins on p. 83
The White House Speaks: Presidential Leadership as Persuasion
Kathy B. Smith; Craig Allen Smith.
Praeger Publishers, 1994
Librarian’s tip: "The Coalitionless Ford Presidency" begins on p. 55
Reparations to Poverty: Domestic Policy in America Ten Years after the Great Society
Brigitta Loesche-Scheller.
Peter Lang, 1995
Librarian’s tip: "Putting the Ford Stamp on Food Stamps" begins on p. 225
Popular Images of American Presidents
William C. Spragens.
Greenwood Press, 1988
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 20 "Gerald R. Ford"
The Inaugural Addresses of Twentieth-Century American Presidents
Halford Ryan.
Praeger Publishers, 1993
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