The Reproduction of Library Materials in 1990
Last year's review article on the reproduction of library materials aptly pointed out that establishing the boundaries for a survey relevant to the reproduction of library materials has become an increasingly difficult task.  Traditional practices for the reproduction of library materials, such as photocopying and preservation microfilming, are unchallenged anew by those who advocate the necessity of original documents for scholarly research.  Preservation microfilming is being carried on to a greater extent than ever before but receiving more criticism from those who favor electronic imaging.  In addition, preservation photocopying and deacidification are increasingly being touted as alternatives to preservation microfilming and perhaps even to electronic imaging. Differences of opinion surround not just technical issues but also criteria for selection of library materials for preservation microfilming, preservation photocopying, electronic imaging, and physical conservation Some controversy has arisen concerning guidelines from the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) that stipulate that NEH funds used only for single-copy preservation microfilming. Support is growing for a comprehensive approach to preservation programs. This would mean that preservation programs. This would mean that preservation measures such as repair, deacidification, rebinding, replacement, and preservation photocopying also should be funded as alternatives and complements to preservation microfilming. This controversy is sometimes couched in terms of a national approach and a local approach. The national approach favors using preservation microfilming, whereby an item is "republished" and made widely available upon demand either on interlibrary loan or by generating an additional service copy from either the camera or printing master negative. The local approach favors physical restoration and retention, whereby originals are preserved in local repositories. This might yield an original more suitable for interlibrary loan, but it does not create a reproduction made directly from the original that might be used to generate additional copies without rehandling the original.
The debate continues to rage over selection criteria for preservation microfilming. Strategies advocated include the clean sweep of all items in a subject collection, condition at the shelf based on the degree of embrittlement, and condition and based on embrittlement and actual or anticipated use. This latter strategy of selection, advocated most strongly by Barclay Ogden, University of California, Berkeley, aims at making immediate maximum use of available funds for preserving material in imminent danger of irreparable loss while awaiting the arrival of affordable and practical newer technologies, such as mass deacidification and electronic storage.
An article appearing in late 1989, shortly after the release of the new American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards for silver, vesicular, and diazo film, summarized technical issues such as comparative image stability, technical compatibility of micrographic and electronic factors surrounding both preservation microfilming and electronic imaging.  Many of the issues raised in this article were discussed in the literature of 1990.
Reproduction of Library
Materials Section (RLMS)
The chair prepared the 1989-90 annual report of the Reproduction of Library Materials Section (Borck). RLMS and the Cataloging and Classification Section (CCS) cosponsored a preconference, "Bibliographic Control of Microforms," at the 1990 annual conference of the American Library Association (ALA), held in Chicago. RLMS %wso participated in planning for the 1990 Association for
Library Collections & Technical Services (ALCTS) president's program, entitled "Preservation, the Common Ground." Planning continued for the 1991 Atlanta Annual Conference, where RLMS will sponsor the program "Managing Library Photocopying in a Digital Age."
Several important issues were discussed at the 1990 "Bibliographic Control of Microforms" preconference. Topics included full- versus minimal-level cataloging of microforms, and the possibility that full-level cataloging might divert money from increased preservation efforts, and also the two-tiered multiple-versions approach to describing different physical manifestations of the same item using the USMARC Format for Holdings Data. By this approach the description of the original appears in the based record, while subsidiary records contain only information that varies from this record. A full report on the preconference prepared by Robert P. Holley and Jill Parchuck was scheduled to appear in the first 1991 issue of Microform Review. A brief report by Holley (A) has already been published.
The Research Libraries Group (RLG) has implemented a change to the USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data field 553 (Reproduction note) for records indicating microfilmed serials or monographic sets or series. This is the addition of subfield m, which should be used to describe the dates of publication or sequential designation of issues reproduced. RLG began the loading of bibliographic records from the National Register of Microform Masters (NRMM) into the Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN) bibliographic database.
The Association of Research Libraries (ARL) in cooperation with the Library of Congress (LC) is administering the conversion of approximately 460,000 bibliographic records for monographs in the NRMM into a machine-readable format master file. ARL received the necessary funding from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. ARL is currently using the services of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) to produce the records. OCLC began production in June 1990. Over the first seven months conversion of records was increased gradually. By the end of January 1991, OCLC had converted 32,585 records, and it plans to convert another 200,000 by the end of 1991. Approximately 61,400 records from an initial conversion by the Computer Company between 1987 and 1989 are also available. The goal is to complete the conversion of the NRMM monographic records by the end of 1992. 
The OCLC Preservation Task Force has developed guidelines for recording preservation data in OCLC's Online Union Catalog (OLUC). This facilitates the avoidance of duplication of effort for those preservation projects funded by the NEH, whose guidelines stipulate that such preservation information be widely disseminated. OCLC continued to expand the database for the OCLC Major Microforms Project. RLG implemented the set processing capability, which will allow bibliographic records from the OCLC Major Microforms Project to display in RLIN with the addition of local data, such as local holdings statements indicating RLIN users who hold specific items. Bibliographic records for newspapers microfilmed as part of the United States Newspaper Program continue to be entered into OCLC's database. Holley (B) has prepared an updated report on this program. Vitiello has described progress on the European Register of Microfilm Masters. RLG and Chadwyck-Healey finalized their deal to have Chadwyck-Healey issue a CD-ROM version of the RLG database of preservation master negatives created over the past eight years by RLG's collaborative preservation efforts. This new tool is entitled RLIN Preservation Masterfile. The first edition of the Guide to Microforms in Print was issued by its new publisher, K. G. Saur Verlag, a German publishing concern and a subsidiary of Bowker.
The Commission on Preservation and Access awarded a contract to Hazen, Harvard College Library, to conduct a study on the status of the production and bibliographic control of Latin American microforms in the United States. Thomas has prepared an account of a project to create a local microform database at the New York Public Library. An account of a similar project at Texas A&M also has been prepared (Alexander and Page, B). Hirons reported on serial microform cataloging at LC. Patterson (A) has expounded the public-service perspective on the need for better bibliographic control over microforms.
The copyright implications of large-scale preservation programs raise specific concerns and issues of copyright compliance arising both from massive reformatting and document delivery. These have been examined in a study issued by the Commission on Preservation and Access (Oakley).
The Commission on Preservation and Access, Xerox, and Cornell University are collaborating on a pilot project to test the recording of brittle books in digital form and reproduce high-quality copies on demand. The project will result in the exploration of the technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the process, the criteria for selecting material, and methods of recording and accessing the material. The commission has also issued a report comparing digital imaging and preservation microfilming (Lesk). The Commission on Preservation and Access contracted with Yale University in November 1990 for a three-month study to explore the feasibility of a major, multiyear project to convert microfilmed texts to digital images and to provide access to the converted information. A new still-camera and computer to record and preserve archival materials were described (Whitaker).
A survey on electronic and optical storage technology appeared (Saffady, B). LC proceeded with work on creating electronic copies of its collections of photographs, manuscripts, music, motion pictures, books, and sound recordings ("American Memory Project"). The Perseus Project is an ongoing attempt to amass a large hypermedia database of materials pertaining to classical Greece. It will contain Greek texts and translations, a Liddell-Scott Lexicon, color images of archaeological sites, and topographical maps (Crane, Heath). Full-text religious texts on CD-ROM were examined (Stover), as were cartographic materials (Armento, Littlejohn, and Parker) and multimedia (Desmarais). A report on a project at the Virginia State Library and Archives to digitize material previously reproduced on photostats appeared (Harrington and Braunschweig). Several articles examined the relationship between preservation microfilming and electronic imaging, including the use of microforms as an input device for digital storage (Bourke, A; Breuer; Broadhurst; Burger; Cady; Diers; "Digital Images"; Landau; Lesk; Mims; Rouyer; Saffady, A; Ubico; and Urrows and Urrows). Applications of electronic imaging for preservation, which were discussed at the aforementioned ALCTS president's program, were summarized by Watson. A clarion call for the use of electronic imaging in lieu of preservation microfilming was sounded (Smith, B). Market acceptance of CD-ROM was examined (Nelson, A, B). A report appeared on implementing technologies for optical card, an electronic-imaging storage medium similar to sheet microfiche (Cory).
A collaborative pilot project to use satellite transmission of graphic images between LC and the Avery Architecture Library at Columbia University in New York City is being underwritten by GTE. This involves the use of lossless compression algorithm techniques to achieve maximum image fidelity. A similar project with the Getty Art History Information Program, Santa Monica, California, is also being underwritten by GTE. An imaging system at Getty has been described (Ester).
The Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM) issued a new technical report on the role of facsimile in electronic imaging (Association for Information and Image Management, B). AIIM also published a monograph on telefacsimile (Jordahl). A description of Ohio State University's network fax project appeared (Kalal).
Microforms in Libraries
This year's literature included studies on the use of microforms in libraries (Holloway and Sutton), microform circulation (Alexander and Page, A), the acceptance of microfiche by students (Gabriel and Flesner), the use levels of microforms in libraries ("College Libraries Committee," "Concept of a Central Collection," and "Idea of a Central Depository"), and bibliographic control to increase access and use (Alexander and Page, B; Patterson, A; and Thomas), microform conversion (Gagne), reprint characteristics of vesicular and diazo microforms ("Reprint Characteristics"), and microfilm cleaning (Sleep).
Art students developed a wish list for futuristic microform image retrieval equipment ("Art Center Students"). Three scholars gave their views on the research value of large manuscript collections in microform (Hill, Ilardi, and Stoller).
Interest continued in combating the problem of blemishes on silver-halide microfilm, both the well-known redox blemishes, a sort of microforms measles appearing as minute reddish rings caused by reduction oxidation of the silver in images created on the film, and silvering, or mirroring, where the phenomenon appears as solid patches or lines. A well-publicized case of the latter at the University of British Columbia was reported to RLMS in 1988. Wassell reported on efforts in Illinois to combat oxidation problems. A cautionary comment regarding the Illinois approach was published by the Image Permanence Institute, which has been experimenting with solutions to this problem (Reilly).
Two articles compared microforms and electronic-imaging media in libraries (Cady, Rouyer). A report on the electronic text service at Columbia University appeared (Lowry). Image stability of various electronic-imaging media was discussed frequently (Novick, Ranade, "RLG Connects," "Standards Summit"). The dilemma of acquiring, maintaining, and reproducing a permanent textual record in an online environment was discussed from the collection development perspective (Atkinson, B). The new edition of the Library Association's text on nonbook materials in libraries appeared (Fothergill and Butchrt).
A new motorized-roll microfilm reader was introduced. The Library Researcher Gideon 1000, manufactured by Micro-image Technology, Inc., of Schaumburg, Illinois, has a continuous zoom lens giving 15x-24x magnification.
Research Publications announced that it had been authorized by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office to add dual-level blipping to selected patent products it supplies on microfilm.  These blip marks will appear on the leading edges of each patent in accordance with ANSI/AIIM MS8-1988 (Image Mark (Blip) Used in Image Mark Retrieval Systems) and allow the automatic retrieval and printing of an entire referenced patent.
One state-of-the-art computer-controlled Hermann and Kraemer 16/35-millimeter microfilm camera is in operation at the MicrogrAphic Preservation Service (MAPS, formerly the Mid-Atlantic Preservation Service), and six more are being ordered. It is likely that this camera will eventually replace the classic Kodak MRD-2, which is no longer manufactured. MAPS began to prepare specifications for a special composing-reducing camera capable of digitizing 35-millimeter microfilm, producing film in different formats, copying film to paper, and creating CD-ROM products.
A noteworthy event was the publication of the autobiography of Eugene B. Power, the founder of University Microfilms International back in 1938 (Power). Power was a pioneer in scholarly commercial micropublishing, and his perspectives on the origins of micropublishing as a limited-edition endeavor are of interest today as the micropublishing and electronic-imaging industry increasingly aim for the mass market as well as for the narrower scholarly market. The micropublishing industry underwent major changes in the 1980s. Microform Review published an analysis of the recent past and future prospects of the micropublishing industry (Bourke, B). This analysis adds to the narrative history as told by Power this year and previously by Alan M. Meckler.  A report of the survey-form pretest prepared by the American Association of Law Libraries for the Commission on Preservation and Access was published (Meredith and Ronen). This worldwide survey is intended to compare commercial micropublishers' adherence to standards for archival preservation microfilming for the production and storage of master negatives and to examine the relation between preservation microfilming and scholarly micropublishing. The Meckler Corporation sold Microform Review, Guide to Microforms in Print, and Microform Market Place to K. G. Saur Verlag. A history of Saur's micropublishing activities, written by the company's president, appeared (Saur).
Cyclical changes in the economy caused major changes in marketing fortunes. Major consolidation of the micropublishing industry through mergers and acquisitions took place in the 1980s. In 1990 micropublishing was prolific both for current material (such as newspapers, journals, and patents) and for research collections. In addition, traditional micropublishers continued to incorporate electronic-publishing activities into their operations and are still evaluating the impact of this diversification into complementary technologies (Landau, Ubico).
The micropublishing industry is traditionally vulnerable in times of economic crisis, when retrospective materials lose their allure. It now remains to be seen if the micropublishing industry will be successful in marketing its retrospective research collections in a difficult economy. The severe economic crisis that befell scholarly micropublishing in 1987 and 1988 could well recur.
An analytical comparison of microform and electronic publishing appeared (Cady). A commercial micropublisher enumerated twenty factors determining micropublishing pricing (Nicely). A library publishing consortium discussed comparative pricing of preservation microfilming and electronic imaging for retrospective materials (Dupont). The image problem for micropublishers who issue pornography in microform was discussed (Patterson, B). A library-oriented version of a standard microform publishing contract appeared (Carpenter and Carr). A related piece discussed general library-vendor micropublishing agreements (Bond). Several articles discussed specific micropublishing projects (Boehm; Hoag and Wears; Holbrook and Holbrook; Imholtz, A, B; Steuart; and Theoharis). The micropublishing of government documents continued to arouse interest and controversy (Carpentier, Collins and Fredette, Luebbe, Kidd, Pelzman, Rogers, Snowhill, and Wilson).
Photocopiers and Photocopying
RLMS planned a 1991 program session for the ALA Annual Conference entitled "Managing Library Photocopying in a Digital Age." A study of the increasing viability of preservation photocopying of brittle bound volumes as an alternative to preservation microfilming was prepared (Orr). The role of photocopying services in generating revenue was addressed (Eisner). Survey reports on photocopying activities were produced at CIMTECH in the United Kingdom (Williams A-C).
The ALCTS Preservation Microfilming Committee has been one of the most active agents in promoting preservation microfilming according to applicable standards. An overview of its history since its establishment in 1980 and a synopsis of its ongoing efforts were given by its past chair (Gwinn).
RLG and OCLC entered into a cooperative agreement that encourages increased participation in RLG's preservation program. Under the two-year agreement OCLC will subsidize program fees for eligible OCLC member institutions that are not already affiliated with RLG's preservation program. To date they have exchanged approximately five hundred thousand bibliographic records for microfilmed items that are entered in RLIN and OCLC.
A report on the preservation microfilming workshops offered by the Northeast Document Conservation Center with support from the Pew Charitable Trust appeared (Swartzburg). A survey of five leading commercial preservation microfilming service agencies was carried out by the University of California, Berkeley (Lockhart and Swartzell). MAPS was acquired by OCLC.  A report on the preservation microfilming activities of the American Theological Library Association appeared (Hurd). Bourke (B) gave a conceptual overview of the current division of labor between library preservation microfilming activities and commercial micropublishing. DeCandido (A, B) evaluated statistical methods for determining the cost-effectiveness of searching for microform availability before selecting items for microfilming. A related article from the perspective of the acquisitions librarian pointed out the need to search for microform availability when searching the out-of-print market for collection development (Barker, Rottman, and Ng). The recommendation to centrally store preservation master negatives was examined ("Concept of a Central Collection").
Princeton University completed the first year of a three-year NEH grant to microfilm approximately nine thousand titles on brittle paper in its Arabic collection. The microfilming is being performed by MAPS. NEH awarded RLG a $724,814 grant to microfilm twenty-five endangered archival collections important to research in American history. This project is called the Archives Preservation Microfilming Project. It will last three years, during which thirteen RLG members will participate to produce approximately two million frames of preservation microfilm.
The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation awarded grants in 1988 to implement a five-year program of preservation microfilming by libraries in the United Kingdom. All participating libraries are committed to produce preservation microfilm to specified standards and to submit bibliographic records of preservation microforms to the Register of Preservation Microforms administered by the British Library. The Mellon Mircofilming Project reported on a visit by the working group in May 1990 to observe preservation microfilming techniques and administration in the United States.
NEH is supplying partial funding in the amount of $212,000 for the RLG Art Serials Microfilming Project. More than a hundred endangered art and architecture serials published in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries will be reformatted by 1992. Project participants will also experiment with a centralized approach to physical preparation, queuing in RLIN to record intent to film, filming, and inspection to minimize costs, ensure quality, and reduce training needs of participating institutions. The preservation microfilming will be performed by MAPS.
Patterson (B) examined the ethical considerations in expending preservation microfilming funds to save pronographic material. The Holbrooks discussed the preservation microfilming of Massachusetts' setts' vital records. Steuart described a cooperative preservation microfilming program in Indiana carried out by the American Genealogic Lending Library. A status report on microfilming maps at the Library of Congress and the National Geographic Society to document L'Enfant's plan for the District of Columbia appeared (Ehrenberg). Four different accounts described preservation microfilming efforts in Europe (Courtot, C; Kastaly; Poprady; and Weber).
As mentioned above, the controversy over criteria to select candidates for preservation microfilming and physical conservation continues. This controversy was well articulated in two recent LRTS articles.  The controversy has become increasingly heated now as the national preservation effort seems to be attuned to a more holistic and comprehensive approach to preservation and conservation. In addition, limited funds mean that no everything that needs to be saved can be saved immediately, if indeed at all. Therefore a set of criteria needs to be identified in order to establish what sort of materials should be preserved and by what method and in which order of priority. Three articles address these issues (Atkinson, A; Hazen; and Schmude). A comparison of the merits of deacidification and preservation microfilming appeared (McCrady). A related topic is that of whether electronic imaging should be used routinely in lieu of preservation microfilming. Articles appeared favoring the pros (Smith, B) and cons (Webster) of this position. The president of the Commission on Preservation and Access defended its position of favoring NEH preservation microfilming rather than physical conservation of originals (Battin, and "Pat Battin Replies").
Two major ANSI/AIIM standards were revised (American National Standards Institute, A, B). ANSI/AIIM MS23-1990 is a revision of what is regarded as the fundamental standard for producing high-quality original microimages from source documents. It covers neither duplicate films nor computer-output microforms. ANSI/AIIM MS5-1990 is a revision of the standard for microfiche. It takes into account the improvements, modifications, and refinements in microfiche since it was last issued in 1985.
ANSI released several relevant standards (American National Standards Institute A-G). AIIM issued a new technical report on facsimile and electronic imaging (Association for Information and Image Management, B). AIIM's director for standards reported on standards activity (Courtot, B). A report on International Standards Organization (ISO) standards activity appeared ("Standards Summit").
Technical Production of
The demise of the Kodak MRD-2 microfilm camera has caused concern for future preservation microfilming operations, although the Hermann and Kraemer camera may fill the need. An article appeared on how to select a source-document microfilm camera (Dorfman, B). Quality control was also treated (Dorfman, A). A statement on the use of 16-millimeter microfilm in Denmark was reprinted (Jorgensen). The role of the ALCTS Preservation Microfilming Committee in fostering high-quality microforms made to archival standards was discussed (Gwinn). Two microfilm research projects were completed by MAPS and reported to the Commission on Preservation and Access. A report on a project to develop specifications for a composing-reducing camera (CRC) concluded that costs were too high to be supportable. Specifications called for a special CRC capable of digitizing 35-millimeter microfilm, producing film in different formats, copying film to paper, and creating CD-ROM products. A second report discussed a prototype "densities on the fly" unit to collect density data as the film exists a film processor ("Two Microfilm Research Projects").
Interest continued in the image quality and long-term stability of color microforms. The Getty Grant Program awarded $254,000 to the Commission on Preservation and Access to support a research project on the dark stability of color microfilm, to be conducted by MAPS, and demonstration project on the use of high-resolution color microfilm, to be performed by the Image Permanence Institute. Claims for the long-term image stability of Cibachrome color film were discussed ("Cibachrome") and the use of Cibachrome to preserve color graphic material was discussed (Silver).
Notes and References
1. Erich J. Kesse, "The Reproduction of
Library Materials in 1989," Library
Resources & Technical Services 34.467
(1990). 2. G. Thomas Tanselle, "Reproductions and
Scholarship," Studies in Bibliography:
Papers of the Bibliographical Society of
Virginia 42:25-54 (1989); Barclay Ogden,
On the Preservation of Books and Documents
in Original Form (Washington,
D.C.: Commission on Preservation and
Access, ED 316 232, 1989), reprinted in
Abbey Newsletter 14, no.4:62-64 (July
1990). 3. Eldred Smith, "Why Microfilm Research-Library
Collections When Electronic Data
Bases Could Be Used?" Chronicle of
Higher Education 36:A34 (July 18, 1990). 4. Thomas A. Bourke, "To Archive or Not to
Archive; Is That Really the Question?"
Library Journal 114, no. 7:52-54 (Oct. 15,
1989). The standards are American
National Standard for Imaging Media
(Film)-Silver-Gelatin Type - Specifications
for Stability ANSI IT9.1-1988, American
National Standard for Photography
(Film)-Processed Vesicular Film - Specifications
for Stability ANSI PH1.67-1985,
American National Standard for Imaging
Media (Film)-Ammonia-Processed Diazo
Films-Specifications for Stability ANSI
IT9.5-1988. 5. Private communication with Jutta Reed-Scott,
ARL Feb. 26, 1991. 6 "Research Publications to Add Dual-Level
Blipping to U.S. Patent Products," news
release (RP Research Publications, Inc.,
Nov. 12, 1990). 7. Alan Marshall Meckler, Micropublishing:
A History of Scholarly Micropublishing in
America, 1938-1980 (Westport, Conn.:
Greenwood, 1982). 8. "Control of MAPS Transferred to OCLC,"
Abbey Newsletter 14:139 (1990). 9. Ross W. Atkinson, "Selection for Preservation:
A Materialistic Approach," Library
Resources & Technical Services 30:341-53
(1986); Margaret S. Child, "Further
Thought on |Selection for Preservation: A
Materialistic Approach,'" Library Resources
& Technical Services 30:354-62
Alexander, Barbara B., and Bill Page (A). "An
Overview of Microform Circulation in
ARL Libraries: Needs, Statistics, and the
Impact of Automation." Microform
Review 19:27-30 (1990).
(B). "Preparing a Comprehensive
Guide to Collections of Microform Materials."
Journal of Documentation 46:53-58
(1990). "The American Memory Project: Sharing
Unique Collections Electronically."
Library of Congress Information Bulletin
49:83-87 (1990). American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) (A). American National Practice
for Generational Procedures/Inspection
and control of First-Generation, Silver
Microfilm of Documents. ANSI/AIIM
Standard MS23-1990. Silver Spring, MD.:
(B). Microfiche. ANSI/AIIM Standard
MS5-1990. Silver Spring, Md.: AIIM,
(C). Reader-Printers for Transparent
Microforms - Performance Characteristics.
ANSI/AIIM Standard MS36-1990. Silver
Spring, Md.: AIIM, 1990.
(D). Recommended Practice for Inspection
of Stored Silver-Gelatin Microforms of
Evidence of Deterioration. ANSI/AIIM
Standard MS45-1990. Silver Spring, Md.:
(E). Requirements and Characteristics
of Original Black-and-White Documents
That May Be Microfilmed. ANSI/AIIM
Standard MS35-1990/ISO 8126. Silver
Spring, Md.: AIIM, 1990.
(F). Test Procedures for Duplicating
35 mm. Diazo Microfilm Aperture Cards.
ANSI/AIIM Standard MS46-1990. Silver
Spring, Md.: AIIM, 1990.
(G). 35 mm. Planetary Cameras (Top-Light)
-- Procedures for Determining Illumination
Uniformity of Microfilming
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MS26-1990. Silver Spring, Md.:
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(B). Technical Report for Information
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(B). "Standards and Technology."
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(B). "Out of the Question. "Conservation
Administration News no.40:20-21
(Jan. 1990); no.41:26-27 (Apr. 1990). Desmarais, Norman. "Tools for Producing
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