Bringing ADDIE to Life: Instructional Design at Its Best

Article excerpt

        Instructional design has numerous approaches and theories
        available for use by designers and instructors. One model
        was particularly effective in providing developers with a
        generic, systematic framework that was easy to use and
        applicable to a variety of settings. The ADDIE model (i.e.,
        Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation)
        was used in two ways in a Master's level instructional design
        course, first as a framework for the development of the
        course and later as a process for the creation of multimedia
        projects. The ADDIE model presented users with an approach
        to instructional design that incorporated an iterative
        process complete with essential steps for the development of
        an effective course or program. Employing the ADDIE model
        in the development of a program or course can assist developers
        in instituting a learner-centered approach rather
        than a teacher-centered approach, making the program more
        applicable and meaningful for learners.

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JI. of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia (2003) 12(3), 227-241

The ADDIE instructional design process (i.e., Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) is a common approach widely used in the development of instructional courses and training programs (Figure 1). This approach provides educators with useful, clearly defined stages for the effective implementation of instruction. Consisting of five phases, the ADDIE framework was used in two ways in the development of an instructional design course for Master's level students. First, the ADDIE framework was used in the planning of the instructional design course. Subsequently, the framework proved useful as a scaffold for students developing multimedia projects as their culminating requirement for the course. Using the ADDIE model throughout the course placed an emphasis on the learner rather than a teacher-centered approach. The analysis of the learners became a crucial aspect in the design of the course and was an essential piece for the learners as they designed their individual multimedia projects. The ADDIE framework brought the instructional design course and projects to life by providing a process that actively engaged developers in problem solving (Figure 1).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

THE ADDIE FRAMEWORK: FIVE PHASES

The ADDIE framework is a cyclical process that evolves over time and continues throughout the instructional planning and implementation process. Five stages comprise the framework, each with its won distinct purpose and function in the progression of instructional design.

Phase 1: Analysis

In the analysis phase, the designers' main consideration is the target audience. First, a needs analysis is conducted to determine the needs of the audience by distinguishing between what students already know and what they need to know at the conclusion of the course. During the needs analysis, instructors or designers examine standards and competencies to establish a foundation when determining what students need by the completion of the course. Information may also be available from previous course evaluations if the course has already been taught. Subsequently, a task analysis is also necessary to identify the instructional content or the specific skills related to the job or course. The content of the course or program can be analyzed with the aid of course texts, sample syllabi, and course websites with a similar focus. With the advent of the Internet, many courses are easily accessible online and can provide a framework or workable template for instructors that are developing a course or teaching a course for the first time. Last, an instructional analysis is performed to establish what must be learned (Seels & Glasgow, 1998). The designer determines the amount of instruction that is needed in relation to the needs and task analysis. …