There is a growing interest in Sabbath keeping in America as a counterbalance to our culture's consumerism, exhaustion, and loss of segmentation between work and other life arenas. We describe three models of Sabbath keeping, their implications for well-being, their inherent challenges and a program of research to investigate the proposed relationships. The models are (a) Life Segmentation, in which people actively segment their lives to create respite; (b) Prescribed Meaning, in which people prescribe positive and religious meaning to life segmentation; and (c) Integrated Sabbath, in which Sabbath keeping is celebrated as an integrated belief system of daily rest, reflection and relationship development.
Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. (Exodus 20:7-9) (1)
The phrase "Sabbath keeping" may appear quaint and outdated, a throwback to a time captured in a Currier & Ives lithograph. Indeed, for many Christians today, Sundays are full of little league games, finding a parking spot at the mall and getting through the to-do list on home projects. In New York, Catholic leaders have bemoaned the fact that church attendance is regularly disregarded for youth Sunday soccer games (Rather, 1999).
The fundamental religious meaning of Sabbath is also a concern for Protestant denominations. A recent survey by the mainline protestant denomination Presbyterian Church USA reflected not only the loss of time set apart for Sabbath but also its spiritual dimension (n = 1,123; Guinn, 1999). Approximately 60% of the respondents reported spending less than five hours a week in activities that could be regarded as Sabbath keeping, and while a majority saw it as a time for personal rest and restoration (79%), a far smaller number focused on its religious aspects such as showing the Kingdom of God to the world (55%).
The purpose of this article is to explore three different models of Sabbath keeping, explicating their benefits for well-being as well as their challenges. We argue that while each model provides some benefits to psychological well-being, the third, "integrated Sabbath" offers the best outcomes and is most closely aligned with the multiple themes found in biblical references pertaining to the Sabbath.
MODELS OF SABBATH KEEPING
The Bible has many passages in the Old and New Testaments regarding the importance of keeping the Sabbath as part of God's law and covenant. While there are distinct themes associated with Sabbath keeping in both testaments, the Bible offers no single prescription for how to spend the Sabbath day. While Orthodox Judaism has developed a strong tradition around the practice of Sabbath keeping (Goldenberg, 1991), Christianity has always struggled with the exact meaning of "keeping the Sabbath" (Bacchiocchi, 1998; McCrossen, 2000). In addition, the pluralism of American society is reflected in the multifaceted ways that people tend to approach Sabbath keeping in their lives. With this in mind we do not define Sabbath keeping as merely a cessation from daily labor or activities, or a photo negative of our everyday lives. Instead, Sabbath keeping broadly defined consists of intentional periods of time set aside to restore equilibrium to the mind, spirit, and body where a person may use his or her religious belief system to reflect on life's personal and spiritual meaning.
This definition can be applied to three modern approaches to Sabbath keeping: (a) Life Segmentation, in which people actively segment their lives to create respite; (b) Prescribed Meaning, in which people prescribe positive and religious meaning to life segmentation; and (c) Integrated Sabbath, in which Sabbath keeping is celebrated as an integrated belief system of daily rest, reflection, and relationship development. It is important to note that these three models of Sabbath-keeping are not necessarily independent, but that they build on one another. That is, someone who practices Sabbath keeping as described in model 2 continues to incorporate aspects of life segmentation from model 1. Similarly, the third model of integrated Sabbath presumes both life segmentation and prescribed meaning.
For each model we review the psychological literature to hypothesize the probable well-being associated with it. Finally we address the challenges inherent in keeping each Sabbath model, ending with a proposed program of research.
Sabbath Model 1: Life Segmentation
By the seventh day God had finished the work he had been doing; so on the seventh day he rested from all his work. (Genesis 2:2)
Keeping the Sabbath is usually associated with the fourth of the Ten Commandments given to the Hebrew nation after their exodus from Egypt. (2) However, the origin of the Sabbath is in the creation story when God rests on the seventh day. The word "rest" in the creation story is translated from the Hebrew verb sabat, meaning, "to cease, desist or put to an end" (Morgenstern, 1962). People who follow a life segmentation model of Sabbath intentionally segment work from other life arenas and participate in leisure or family activities on a regular basis. This segmentation is not necessarily tied to normative religious or spiritual practice, and most of those who follow this model of Sabbath would not necessarily characterize themselves as "Sabbath keepers." However, they have "ceased" or "put to an end" by creating boundary conditions between work and other important life domains (Belkin, 1999; Schor, 1992). This intentional segmentation has become increasingly important as the physical boundaries between work and home fade with telecommuting and increased use of home offices (Etozioni, 2000; Friedman & Greenhaus, 2000).
Whether people take off an entire day or find some regular period of segmentation, the key benefit to this model is that people find respite or experience less stress by inserting "punctuation" around their activities each week. Literature in the area of stress and stress management has highlighted the importance of balance in one's life as a way to effectively cope with stress that cannot be eliminated. That is, people who are committed to roles in several areas of their lives (family, work, social, intellectual, physical, etc.), yet have multiple resources to draw upon when faced with stress, are more likely to respond in positive ways to stressors than those who are committed to only a few roles (Kobasa, 1979). This concept is known as resiliency, that is, the capacity to recover from a downturn to a former state of relative well-being (Carver, 1998). Actively disengaging from work to focus on other areas of one's life can help promote a more balanced lifestyle, providing greater psychological resiliency (Linville, 1987; Whetten & Cameron, 1998).
The first challenge to the life segmentation model is that the segmentation may not be holistic and subsequently not offer total respite. That is, people may physically detach themselves from a stressful work situation, but unless they redirect mentally, emotionally, or spiritually, they will not necessarily experience respite. In other words, leisure can be as taxing as work (Aron, 1999). Etzion, Eden, and Lapidot (1998) found that Israeli reservists were more likely to experience respite from their regular job when they were able to psychologically detach from it during their reserve service.
The second challenge for this model of Sabbath keeping is that it is possible for it to devolve into a set of rules. For people who are interested in keeping the Sabbath through life segmentation, but have no faith tradition regarding the practice, it is easy to begin by simply adding rules to their lives: no email, no going into the office, no grading papers, etc. If people add rules to their lives because they decide they should slow down, they may feel less in control of their lives than if they had never adopted intentional segmentation. According to Deci and Ryan's introjected regulation model of self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1995; Ryan & Deci, 2000, 2001), behavior that is intra-individually driven can still have an external locus of control through social, familial, or other expectations and not be truly perceived as part of the self. Activities that are driven through introjected regulation are performed to avoid guilt or anxiety, and subsequently undermine the joy and self-competency inherent in those activities. Even though this behavior is internally driven, actions are controlled or coerced by "shoulds" that are external to a person's sense of self (Deci & Ryan, 1995). Subsequently, rather than ameliorate stress associated with daily life, Sabbath-keeping as another add-on set of rules may exacerbate it.
Sabbath Model 2: Prescribed Meaning
For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but he rested on the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy. (Exodus 20:11)
One way to introduce holistic respite and to prevent Sabbath keeping from becoming merely a set of rules is to associate positive meaning with it. This positive meaning can be found in the Sabbath's holiness. The Hebrew word for holy, "qadosh," pertains to certain places, objects, or occasions when people enter into relatively direct contact with the divine power. The underlying idea is not separation, but the positive thought of encounter with God that calls for a reverent, worshipful response such as prayer, study and celebration (Brown, 1982; Mirsky, 2000). Sources of positive personal meaning for the Sabbath include interpreting the Sabbath day through one's faith, discovering opportunities for personal growth, and creating community with others.
Through the process of positive reappraisal, the meaning of a situation is changed in a way that allows the person to experience positive emotion and psychological well-being in the midst of stressful situations (Folkman & Moskowitz, 2000a, 2000b). While much of the early research on stress and subsequent coping activity has focused on the negative attributes and outcomes of stress, more recent research has focused on the development of positive personal meaning that often accompanies coping with stress (Holahan & Moos, 1991). The coping literature is full of examples of the importance of positive reflection for one's health, especially in the face of chronic stress (Moskowitz, Folkman, Collette, & Vittinghoff, 1996). In addition, the positive meaning associated with religious beliefs has also been shown to serve as a coping mechanism in the presence of illness and death (Pargament, 1997; Richards & Folkman, 1997; Stolley, Buckwalter, & Koeing, 1999).
In choosing to observe Sabbath, people often reflect on the meaning associated with engaging in habits that are different than those of the cultural norm. Our culture values productivity; a popular thesaurus equates unproductive with wasteful (Merriam-Webster, 1989). However, reflecting on her own Sabbath experiences, author Barbara Brown Taylor (1999) wrote
It was not sloth. It was Sabbath, and its effect was immediate. Relationships became more spacious. Prayer became more spacious. Time itself became more spacious. Instead of charging out the gate on Monday mornings, I found myself sauntering instead, still relishing the freedom of the day before. There was never enough time to get everything done, but I finally understood there never would be. There would only be enough time to live with as much gratitude as I could muster. (p. 510)
Keeping the Sabbath with prescribed meaning helps to redefine aspects of life, giving different and positive personal meaning to values others consider unimportant.
The key challenge to this model is to avoid practicing Sabbath keeping as the means to other ends rather than as an end in itself. In the spirit of American multi-tasking, people might choose to keep the Sabbath for additional motives such as protecting family time or ensuring some scheduled time for valued recreational activities. However, labeling this time as "Sabbath" may dilute the personal meaning derived from one's religious beliefs. In the end, focusing on actions that are not integrated with personal meaning diminishes the potency of this model to impact well-being. This tension between using the Sabbath as a means to other ends is not new. Rabbi Abraham Heschel (1979) quoted the Ancient Alexandrian Jewish philosopher Philo (20 BC-AD 50), in defense of the Jewish Sabbath:
On this day we are commanded to abstain from all work, not because the law inculcates slackness ... Its object is rather to give man relaxation from continuous and unending toil and by refreshing their bodies with a regularly calculated system of remissions to send them out renewed to their old activities. For a breathing spell enables not merely ordinary people but athletes also to collect their strength with a stronger force behind them to undertake promptly and patiently each of the tasks set before them. (pp. 13-14)
Rabbi Heschel commented that this interpretation viewed the Sabbath as a means to renewed strength and activity and that this interpretation would be wrong. He noted that man is not a beast of burden and the Sabbath is not for the purpose of enhancing efficiency of his work. One way to prevent Sabbath keeping from becoming a means to other ends is to understand that it is not a religious contractual agreement but instead based on God's covenant with his people: "The Israelites are to observe the Sabbath, celebrating it for the generations to come as a lasting covenant" (Exodus 31:16). Scottish theologian James Torrance (1981, 1996) drew a very clear distinction between contract and covenant. A contract is a legal relationship in which two people or two parties bind themselves together under mutual conditions to affect some future result. However, God's covenant is not conditioned by anything expected from people but is founded solely on the love of God for his creation. God makes a covenant for us not with us. In a covenant, Torrance wrote, the indicatives of grace always precede the imperatives of law and human obligation. God's grace is not made conditional on man's obedience to God's commandments (contract). Instead people follow this precept with joy and gratitude because it is God's sign of unmerited favor in his creation and redemption of the world (covenant).
Sabbath keeping as a covenant occurs when we believe that God's grace to us is not conditional on obedience. Instead we follow the commandment to keep the Sabbath with joy as we recognize God's gift of relationship with his creation (Torrance, 1981). Focus on this covenant helps to avoid using Sabbath keeping as simply another stress-reduction tool to make us more productive during the workweek.
Sabbath Model 3: Integrated Sabbath
Keep my decrees and laws, for the man who obeys them will live by them. (Leviticus 18:5)
Sabbath keeping will offer the most respite when it is celebrated as part of a cycle of integrated and intrinsically motivated faith that is part of one's everyday life and sense of self (Allport, 1960; Allport & Ross, 1967). Rather than continuing to live a hectic life and attempt to segmentation with Sabbath keeping, we believe that psychological well-being will be most pronounced when Sabbath keeping becomes integrated into an internalized religious belief system that regularly strives for respite and well-being. The early church fathers referred to this as Otium Sanctum or holy leisure. They meant a sense of balance in life, an ability to be at peace through the activities of the day, every day; an ability to rest, to take time to enjoy beauty and to pace oneself (Foster, 1978). The ability to integrate one's belief system into a daily way of life that incorporates Sabbath principles presupposes an established faith. It is impossible to keep the Sabbath as described in this third model without a faith system that recognizes the pervasiveness of God's holiness in everyday life experiences.
According to Deci and Ryan's (1985, 1995) self-determination theory (SDT), self-determined behaviors that meet basic psychological needs will lead to personal growth, integrity and well-being only to the extent that the behavior becomes internalized into one's self system through autonomy, competence and relatedness (Cowen, 1991; Kasser & Ryan, 1996; Ryan & Deci, 2000, 2001; Sheldon & Kasser, 1998). After reviewing biblical texts related to Sabbath keeping, we identified three important Sabbath keeping themes that align with SDT themes of autonomy, competence, and relatedness: rest, reflection, and relationships, respectively. In the next section we review biblical Sabbath texts connected to these three themes and the psychological literature associated with each.
SABBATH KEEPING THEMES
Rest and autonomy
Thus the beavens and the earth were completed in all their vast array. By the seventh day God had finished the work be had been doing; so on the seventh day be rested from all his work. (Genesis 2:1-2)
If one believes in a God that has the awesome power to create the universe, God's rest on the seventh day of the creation story should not be interpreted as a stay from exhaustion. Rather it indicates God's autonomous choice not to be subject to his creation but ruler over it. The deliverance of the Hebrew nation from the bondage of slavery not only freed them from physical servitude, but it gave them the freedom to experience spiritual rest, that being made in the likeness of God, they too could decide when to view their work as complete. As Bass (2000) wrote, "To keep the Sabbath is to exercise one's freedom, to declare oneself to be neither a tool to be employed ... nor a beast to be burdened" (p. 48).
With integrated Sabbath we recognize what we can control and what we actively surrender--it is an internalized rest, not one forced on or withheld from us by social considerations. This autonomy is defined as "feelings of personal volition towards activities that are congruent with one's sense of self" (Ryan & Deci, 2000, p. 74). An autonomously functioning individual experiences more personal value for activities when they are seen as emanating from him or herself. The choice, volition and freedom from excessive external pressure that are hallmarks of autonomy have repeatedly been shown to relate to well-being (Myers & Diener, 1995; Reis, Sheldon, Gable, Roscoe, & Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2000; Sheldon, Ryan, & Reis, 1996). In addition, autonomy has been shown to be an important component for internalizing religious belief. Ryan, Rigby, and King (1993) found that religiosity characterized by autonomous identification was related to increased volunteer activity and more conducive toward mental health than a socially prescribed religiosity. In related research, Strahan and Craig (1995; cited in Ryan & Deci, 2000) found that parents who encouraged their children's autonomous participation in church promoted greater religious identification among them.
Sabbath rest recognizes that life contains many cycles, seasons, endings, and beginnings, and that rest itself is a good and important attribute of one's life. Integrated Sabbath values rest for its own sake and prevents work and productivity from controlling our lives (Peterson, 1994).
Reflection and Competence
Observe the Sabbath, because it is holy to you. (Exodus 31:14a)
In integrated Sabbath keeping, reflection represents the conscious mental endeavor to integrate hope into an internalized belief system. Recognizing Sabbath's holiness or apartness, Sabbath keeping is most likely to be integrated into a sense of self to the extent that people actually feel that they can devote an entire day to Sabbath keeping without negatively impacting their lives. According to Ryan and Deci (2000), people must perceive personal competence in addition to experiencing their behavior as self-determined to build well-being. In turn, this sense of competency, or self-efficacy, is an important component of hope, which is also positively related to well-being (Snyder, 1994; Snyder, Cheavens & Michaels, 1999; Snyder, Cheavens, & Sympson, 1997).
However, competency is not necessarily an intra-individual construct. As Lazarus (1999) noted, the Snyder et al. model posits a sense of personal competence or control over outcomes dealing with life and the world. He added that hope is still possible even when we are personally helpless to affect outcomes, such as remission from cancer. We label this type of hope "transcendent hope." In transcendent hope, people do not have a personal sense of control over their pathways nor in their ability to enact a solution to an outcome. However, they believe that there is power outside the physical realm that can indeed positively impact outcomes. This notion of transcendent hope is reflected in the writings of the Apostle Paul: "Hope that is seen is no hope at all. Who hopes for what he already has? But if we hope for what we do not yet have, we wait for it patiently" (Romans 8:24-25).
Bandura (1997) noted that a sense of personal agency can derive from within oneself or it can be by proxy of others, what he labeled "proxy control." Subsequently, people who do not have direct control over a situation can still derive a sense of control or hope. Indeed, Weldon, Adkins, Ingle, and Dixon (1996) hypothesized that the locus of control factors--internal, external and chance--were deficient in that they did not recognize the belief in a God who has control in the world. They labeled this attribute "God Control" and found that God Control measures were independent of established external and chance locus of control measures, suggesting that hope in God is not simply an abandonment of personal control over life's outcomes.
Nobel Peace laureate Archbishop Desmond Tutu provided a good example of such transcendent hope. In 1985, prior to the end of apartheid in South Africa, Archbishop Tutu made the astonishing statement that he could celebrate the defeat of apartheid because God would not be denied the victory over evil. Several years later he reflected on his comments, saying that during the darkest time of apartheid "when evil seemed to be on the rampage and about to overwhelm goodness, one held on to this article of faith by the skin of one's teeth. It was a kind of theological whistling in the dark and one was frequently tempted to whisper in God's ear 'for goodness sake, why don't you make it obvious that You are in charge?'" (Tutu, 1999, p. 4). In 1985 Archbishop Tutu did not know what the future held but he experienced transcendent hope believing that God owned the pathway to the future.
On the flip side, worry destroys transcendent hope. Worry has been defined as a disturbing cognition that a state of an object in some domain in life (health, safety, etc.) will become (or become more or remain) discrepant from its desired state (Boehnke, Schwartz, Stromberg, & Sagiv, 1998; Schwartz, Sagiv, & Boehnke, 2000). For example, Schwartz et al. found that worry was especially negatively related to well-being for people who held power values, which emphasize self-interest at the expense of others. While Boehnke et al. found that there was no relationship between worries and subjective well-being when worries were external to the self such as home lessness, child abuse, or global debt, worries about one's self, such as being unattractive, fear of unemployment, death of loved ones, etc., were negatively related to subjective well-being. By worrying, people replace God with themselves as a central source of hope which will decrease feelings of competence in resolving life's discrepancies. Spending the Sabbath day worrying about future personal issues disregards its covenantal nature by forgetting that the Sabbath reflects the sign of God's mercy and blessing to creation (Yang, 1997). In the Sermon on the Mount Jesus reflected on the corrosive aspect of worrying on well-being when he said
I tell you, do not worry about your life, what you will eat or drink; or about your body, what you will wear. Is not life more important than food, and the body more important than clothes? Look at the birds of the air; they do not sow or reap or store away in barns, and yet your heavenly Father feeds them. Are you not much more valuable than they? Who of you by worrying can add a single hour to his life? ... Therefore do not worry about tomorrow, for tomorrow will worry about itself. Each day has enough trouble of its own. (Matthew 6:25-27, 34)
Sabbath keeping is not just a celebration of God's past blessings but a positive expectation of the future centered on him.
Relationships and relatedness
There are six days when you may work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath of rest, a day of sacred assembly. You are not to do any work; wherever you live, it is a Sabbath to the LORD. (Leviticus 23:3)
Sacred assembly can be an important aspect of Sabbath keeping, strengthening one's social identity with others who also keep the Sabbath. For example, the Sabbath is central to Jewish identity. There is an old adage that says, "More than the Jews have kept the Sabbath, the Sabbath has kept the Jews" (Molloy, 1999).
A review of the psychological literature has shown that the need to belong is a powerful, fundamental, and extremely pervasive motivation (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). Belongingness through more specific social identity (ethnic identity, racial identity, or collective self-esteem) has also repeatedly been shown to relate to positive psychological adjustment (Contrada & Ashmore, 1999; Elliott & Sherwin, 1997; Lee & Robbins, 1998; Myers, 2000). Social support through spiritual social identity offers such benefits as reinforcing the coping mechanisms of one's religious schema when faced with bereavement (McIntosh, Silver, & Wortman, 1993; Richards & Folkman, 1997). Eugene Peterson (1994) reflected on this positive aspect of relationships when he noted that during the 18 years he served as a pastor, he and his wife regularly used Monday as their personal Sabbath day. However, when he left the ministry to accept an academic position, they were able to join with their congregation in keeping the Sabbath. He wrote that this sense of community in keeping the Sabbath has added an element of festivity to the day.
In addition, many theologians have encouraged people to spend part of their Sabbath day in works of mercy in showing love to others (Primus, 1991). Such activities may include feeding the hungry, clothing the naked, lodging the homeless and visiting the sick and imprisoned. Being with and serving others can prevent Sabbath keeping from evolving into self-absorption (Smith, 2000).
In summary, rest that emphasizes personal volition, reflection that builds competence, and relationships that strengthen Sabbath identity are most likely to lead to Sabbath keeping that is integrated into one's self and, in turn, positively impact well-being.
There are two key challenges to keeping this model. The first challenge is the recognition that the integrated model calls for a reexamination of one's entire life. As Kurt Lewin (1951) noted over 50 years ago, people must experience a personal "felt need" before they are willing to undertake dramatic life changes. It may be that only people who have experienced symptoms of burnout will be willing to undertake the motivation to radically transform their lives.
A second challenge to this model will be the lack of support from other Christians in one's faith based community to observe an entire Sabbath day. Even with the increased writings on the importance of Sabbath keeping in evangelical Christian literature (e.g. Dawn, 1989; Bass, 2000), apart from attending church, many Christians are not convinced that it is a gift but rather, see it as a return to legalistic dogma (Bacchiocchi, 1998). Without social support from one's religious community it will be difficult for individuals to practice Sabbath keeping as a celebration of an integrated lifestyle, especially in regards to the relationship aspect of the model.
The importance of keeping a Sabbath day to promote and maintain an integrated life should not be underestimated. Social psychology has long shown a tenuous link between people's beliefs and actions (Rokeach, 1968). The integral role of Sabbath keeping in religious belief is a necessary but not sufficient condition for its practice. Unless Sabbath keeping is a central part of one's religious belief system, practiced with autonomy, competency, and in conjunction with others, it is easy to have a bifurcated view where beliefs are divorced from actions and Sabbath keeping is more of an espoused goal rather than action or "theory" in use (Argyris & Schon, 1996). This can easily occur since we simply do not live in a culture that supports or admires integrative Sabbath keeping.
However, as Bass (2000) noted, society challenges Sabbath, but at the same time, Sabbath challenges society. Sabbath is prophetic and relevant for our time, she asserted, precisely because so many people find it difficult. Practicing rest with reflection and surrounding oneself in community with others who hold similar values regarding Sabbath keeping should help to internalize the practice, making it easier to go against the grain of larger societal expectations (Swann, 1990).
DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
There are three key foci for future programs of research. First, there is little general understanding regarding the restorative nature of time away from work (Eden, 2002). For example, why do some people dread a return to work on Monday, while others view Monday as a respite from time at home, and still others return to work on Monday with a renewed sense of purpose? Throughout this article we have hypothesized that respite will be related to the extent to which people experience self-determined down time with rest, reflection, and relationships. Future empirical research is necessary to support these claims.
Once researchers have substantiated those relationships, the next step will be to investigate the moderating effects of religious beliefs on the relationship between respite and time away from work. Specifically, we would like to examine the moderating strength of each of the Sabbath keeping models on work, respite, and well-being. In order to assess these domains, measures of Sabbath keeping will need to be developed and related to psychological wellness.
Finally, future research could examine pastoral burnout, time away from work, and reasons for or against regularly practicing Sabbath keeping. While pastors have been identified as a key population at risk for burnout (Hall, 1997), they often feel unable to regularly disengage from their ministry (Grosch & Olsen, 2000). Research that documents Sabbath keeping among pastors and its concomitant relationship to wellness may serve as a tool to encourage others to seriously consider incorporating Sabbath keeping in their ministry.
We believe that the psychological evidence supports all three models of Sabbath keeping in providing opportunities for respite. However, while the first two models provide respite from external forces such as job stress, the third model encourages respite as a daily activity minimizing the need for respite from without.
(1) All biblical references are from the New International Version (The Holy Bible, 1978).
(2) Exodus 20:8-11 and Deuteronomy 5:12-15.
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MARGARET DIDDAMS, LISA KLEIN SURDYK, and DENISE DANIELS
Seattle Pacific University
A previous draft of this article was presented at Religion and Well-Being Session, 2001 American Psychological Association Annual Conference-Division 36 Psychology of Religion. The authors would like to thank the three reviewers for their helpful comments. Correspondence regarding this article can be sent to Margaret Diddams, Seattle Pacific University, School of Psychology, Family & Community, Seattle WA 98119. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
DIDDAMS, MARGARET. Address: School of Psychology, Family & Community, Seattle Pacific University, 3307 3rd Ave W, Seattle, WA 98119. Title: Director of Research & Associate Professor of Graduate Psychology. Degrees: BA, Wheaton College, MA, PhD, New York University. Specializations: Industrial/Organizational Psychology, Human Resource Management, and Behavioral Statistics.
SURDYK, LISA KLEIN. Address: School of Business and Economics, Seattle Pacific University, 3307 3rd Ave W, Seattle, WA 98119. Title: Associate Professor of Economics. Degrees: BA, Seattle Pacific University, PhD, University of Washington. Specializations: Macroeconomics, political economy, managerial economics, integrating biblical principles with economics.
DANIELS, DENISE: Address: School of Business and Economics, Seattle Pacific University, 3307 3rd Ave W, Seattle, WA 98119. Title: Associate Professor of Management. Degrees: BA, Wheaton College; PhD, University of Washington. Specializations: Organizational Behavior; Human Resource Management Research Interests; Theology of Business; Sabbath; Motivation; Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: Impression Management.…