Most observers consider that modern Parliaments have three main functions which are identified as the legislative function (including participation in the making of public policy through lawmaking and parliamentary enquiries); oversight (carried out mainly, but not exclusively, by the "loyal opposition"); and representation (which allows members to address the problems of their constituents and promote their interests). One unfortunate feature of modern life is widespread disillusion with the process of government, with the institution of Parliament and with the way Parliamentarians carry out these functions.
One aim of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association is to counteract this attitude by developing strategies to strengthen parliaments and their members. This is done in part by providing opportunities for legislators to meet to discuss parliamentary issues at regional conferences and seminars, parliamentary workshops, post-election seminars, study groups and of course the Annual International Conference which will be held this year in Canada.
Another objective is to assist members in their capacity as members of a particular profession. Parliaments are governed by a series of seemingly arcane orders and rulings, which are often daunting for a newly-elected MP (and for some who have been in Parliament for a long time). Parliament is the only institution composed of members who enter with no specific educational requirements, who receive little or no formal on-the-job training and who must immediately make complex policy decisions in the face of rival demands from all sectors of domestic society and the wider world. Parliamentary support staff, while expert in other disciplines, often take on legislative posts with little specialized training--sometimes without even the support of experienced colleagues.
Some Commonwealth Parliaments are able to offer basic training for newly-elected MPs, either by mentoring or by arranging special introductory seminars. Others, notably the Parliament of India, produce handbooks explaining various parliamentary practices and procedures in an easily-digested format. But many Commonwealth Parliaments lack sufficient staff and resources, and are unable to provide such orientation. Endeavouring to fill this gap was a primary focus of my activities during my nine years as Secretary General of the Association.
For example, after eleven years of military dictatorship, an election was held in the West African country of Ghana in 1992. Two hundred members were elected to the new Parliament, of whom only two had previous parliamentary experience. A request was sent to the CPA Headquarters in London to assist the neophyte MPs by providing …