Academic journal article
By Stahnke, Tad; Blitt, Robert C.
Georgetown Journal of International Law , Vol. 36, No. 4
TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION I. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELIGION AND THE STATE A. Islam as State Religion TABLE: DEFINING A CONSTITUTIONAL ROLE FOR RELIGION MAP: PREDOMINANTLY MUSLIM COUNTRIES CLASSIFIED BY RELATION WITH ISLAM B. Alternatives to Constitutional Recognition of a State Religion C. Constitutional Role for Islamic Law, Principles, or Jurisprudence. 1. Overview 2. Islam as Source of Legislation 3. Other Provisions for Recognition of Islamic Principles 4. Other Principles in Addition to Islam May Be Sources of Legislation or the Basis for Determining Constitutional Repugnancy II. GUARANTEE OF THE RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF RELIGION OR BELIEF A. Minimum International Standards for Constitutional Provisions B. Relevant International Human Rights Instruments 1. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 2. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) C. Implementation of International Standards in Predominantly Muslim Countries 1. Constitutional Provisions That Compare Favorably 2. Constitutional Provisions That Compare Less Favorably 3. Freedom of Religion or Belief as a Right of Every Individual 4. Constitutional Safeguards Against Coercion in Matters of Religious Belief 5. Table: Comparison of Constitutional Provisions on Freedom of Religion to International Standards D. Constitutional Restrictions on the Right to Freedom of Religion or Belief E. Permissible Limitations on Freedom to Manifest a Religion or Belief Under International Law III. RELATED RIGHTS: FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION, ASSOCIATION, AND ASSEMBLY A. Overview B. Application of Related Rights IV. EQUALITY AND PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION A. Overview B. Constitutional Provisions on Equality and Nondiscrimination That Compare Favorably with International Standards C. Constitutional and Other Limitations on the Rights to Equality and Nondiscrimination V. CONSTITUTIONAL LAW: SUPREMACY, REMEDIES FOR RIGHTS VIOLATIONS, AND REVISIONS A. Laws Inconsistent with Fundamental Rights May Be Void B. Constitutionally Recognized Rights May Be Superseded by Ordinary Law C. Review of Constitutionality May Implicate the Conformity of Legislation with Islam D. Remedies for Violations of Constitutionally Recognized Rights E. Prohibitions on Certain Revisions to the Constitution VI. REFERENCE TO INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS A. Overview B. Affirmative Obligation or General Reference to International Human Rights Instruments C. Incorporation of International Treaties into Domestic Law CONCLUSION VII. APPENDIX A. Table I: Relationship Between Religion and the State Constitutional Provisions (By Region) MIDDLE EAST/NORTH AFRICA SOUTH ASIA EAST ASIA AFRICA EUROPE/EURASIA B. Table II: The Right to Freedom of Religion or Belief Constitutional Provisions (By Region) MIDDLE EAST/NORTH AFRICA SOUTH ASIA EAST ASIA AFRICA EUROPE/EURASIA C. Table III: Equality and Prohibition of Discrimination Constitutional Provisions (By Region) MIDDLE EAST/NORTH AFRICA SOUTH ASIA EAST ASIA AFRICA EUROPE/EURASIA D. Population Data and Freedom of Religion Provisions of Non-Muslim Countries with Significant Muslim Populations INDIA NIGERIA CHINA RUSSIA ETHIOPIA TANZANIA E. Draft Constitution of the Republic of Iraq
Several current developments in constitutional drafting are spurring renewed analysis of the existing constitutional landscape of the Muslim world. …