A further report on what is being snatched away of the antiquities of Mali. The usual story the world over is of export to cash-rich western collectors, and this is something different, the archaeological site as quarry of recycled materials that are treated by another scale of values.
This note is a sad postscript to the article in ANTIQUITY by Dembele & van der Waals (1991) on the looting of antiquities from the toguere sites (dwelling mounds) in the Inland Niger Delta (FIGURE 1).
The following information was collected during an archaeological survey, conducted with the permission of the Malian Institut des Sciences Humaines, in the Gao region in January 1993 and forms part of a larger research project, The archaeological recognition of the acceptance of Islam in the Western Sahel, c. 800--1200 AD. This will assess the spread of Islam using a multi-disciplinary approach involving survey and surface collection, limited excavation in the Gao and Ansongo areas, the study of oral and written historical sources and the collection of ethnographic data.
The location of Gao and Saney and their historical importance
The city of Gao is located on the Niger bend, within the sixth region of the republic of Mali, approximately 1100 km from the capital, Bamako (De Moraes Farias 1990). Although Gao developed as a terminus for trans-Saharan trade prior to 1000 AD, it is famous historically as the capital of the Songhai empire which was at its height between the mid 15th and late 16th centuries. The Songhai empire was the last of the three great medieval West African empires and was preceded by the empire of Ghana which flourished from the 9th to the 11th centuries, and by the empire of Mali which reached its peak in the early 14th century (Levtzion 1985). These empires derived their wealth from control of the lucrative trans-Saharan trade in commodities such as gold and ivory.
The site of Saney is situated roughly 4 km to the east of the modern city of Gao, in the Tilemsi valley (Flight 1975a) (FIGURE 1). Saney is the site of the first Muslim Songhai capital. It consists of a low mound rising to 8 m above the surrounding terrain and covers 30--40 ha (Flight 1979). The mound is associated with a Muslim cemetery, 100 m to the east. The discovery of several marble grave stelae of Andalusian origin in the early 1940s, subsequently dated to the early 12th century, alerted the then colonial authorities to the importance of Saney in the medieval history of West Africa. Since then several small-scale excavations have been carried out at Saney, although none has been fully published (Mauny 1951; Flight 1975a; 1975b; 1979).
The process of destruction
The site of Saney was visited unannounced in the company of officials from the Division du Patrimoine Culturel in Gao in late January 1993. The sight which met our eyes was most distressing. Treasure-hunters have systematically worked their way across the central portion of the site, sinking 4-m deep test pits into the archaeological deposits. Typically the robbers work in two-man teams; one man on the surface sieves the soil passed up by his colleague from the bottom of the pit, in a sack or bucket on the end of a length of rope (FIGURE 2). In some places only half a metre separates one hole from another, so the site looks like a Swiss cheese (FIGURE 3). The surface of the site is scattered with discarded pot sherds and complete vessels, bones (both human and animal), bricks and fragments of metalwork (FIGURE 4). The objects of the robbers' attentions are glass and stone beads. Transported to the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, they fetch relatively high prices and are re-used in jewellery and charm production.
The reasons for destruction
Dembele & van der Waals (1991: 905) say that the sites of Islamic cemeteries between Mopti and Djenne in …