An Assessment of a New Product Strategy: The Marketing of Lead-Free Enviro-Brass

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Producing an effective template to assess the performance of new product brands require an incipient knowledge-pool of observational skills and analyses. This study examines the promotion of a new product brand, lead-free EnviroBrass. We describe the new product and examine the brand's Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC). By looking at cost-benefit analysis, the marketing mix, communication objectives and the ensuing results, we find the usage of usually effective promotional schedule produced the desired market penetration. However, the assessment indicates that the product has not met the intended market potential. When faced with such painful riddle of uncertainty, we recommend probing extraneous variables such as global unrest, depreciating and depleting world economy, timing, etc., and intervening variables that affect the observed phenomenon but are not readily seen or measured.


To effectively plan, implement, and evaluate the expected sufficient sales or insufficient sales of goods, we look through the periscope of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) programs. Thus, the integrated effect of the overall marketing process, consumer behavior, and communication theory, among others are judged against sales of goods. In making the judgment, lucid, thought-provoking analysis is the major contributor to the challenging task of assessment. In this paper, an incipient knowledge-pool of observation in the life of EnviroBrass provides the basis for appraisal and evaluation.


From recorded historiography, humans have used copper and its alloys, especially bronze and brass, for making decorative items, sculpturing, structural devices and parts in architecture for distributing water and gas. For example, copper and its alloys are today used in applications that demand such properties as electrical conduction, heat conduction, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, mechanical strength, and aesthetics. Applications are broad and varied and include electronic components, armaments, cooking utensils, jewelry, marine hardware, and plumbing. In plumbing, the standard alloy in contemporary architecture is brass.

Copper was produced as early as 4000 B. C. Bronze and brass were discovered, perhaps identified, much later. So what are bronze and brass? Pure copper is comparatively soft and is therefore not amenable to many of the previously mentioned applications. However, when another metal is added to or mixed with copper to make an alloy, in effect deliberately making it impure, some of copper's important properties manifest. The earliest such alloy is bronze which is a mix of copper and the metal tin. Small amounts of about 2-15% tin can result in a sclerosis and a strengthening of copper. Much later, the Romans used brass, copper with small amounts of zinc, to make Armour and helmets.

With the era of modern metallurgy, it became evident that additions of even smaller amounts of other metals to bronze or brass provided even more attractive responses and properties. For example, sculptors observed that addition of 2% silicon or 1% manganese or phosphorus enhanced the melting of brass and improved pouring ease (or castability). Others found that addition of 1-10% lead in the alloy made castings of brass and bronze easier to work (chip, machine, sand, etc). The cumulative knowledge is inherent in the traditional and customary copper alloys used for plumbing devices in the last two centuries:

ALLOY                             COMPOSITION

85 metal                          85% copper
(also called UNS C83600)           5% tin
                                   5% lead
                                   5% zinc
81 metal                          81% copper
(also called UNS C84400)           3% tin
                                   7% lead
                                   9% zinc

A visit to the plumbing aisle of the local hardware store will show pipe fittings, valves, and faucets, which are likely to be made from 85 metal and 81 metal. …