Born into slavery on March 15, 1843, in Noxubee County, Mississippi, to Indiana Dixon, Richard Henry Boyd was given the name Dick Gray. He was named Dick after his maternal grandfather, Richard, and, as was the common practice of the day, he assumed the last name of his owner.
Tie Gray family and their slaves moved in 1848 to Lowndes County, Mississippi, and then to Claiborne Parish, Louisiana, in 1853. (1) After he death of Martha Gray, the wife of his owner, Boyd's family was sold to relatives of the Gray family in 1859, and Boyd was sold to Benoni W. Gray for $1,200 and taken to the cotton fields of Washington County, Texas. Boyd spent the next several years as a mule boy hauling cotton on the Gray plantation. Indiana and her three daughters were sold to a family that moved to Houston County, Texas. Boyd did not see his mother again until after the Civil War.
During the Civil War, Gray and his three sons entered the Confederate army. Boyd accompanied them as his owner's body servant. (2) At a battle near Chattanooga, Tennessee, in November 1863, Gray and his two eldest sons were killed, and the youngest was seriously wounded. Boyd carried the surviving son back to Texas, where he slowly convalesced. To protect his young master when it was rumored that Union forces were near Washington County, Boyd took him to Mexico until it was safe to bring him home. Upon returning to Texas, Boyd managed the Gray plantation and sold its cotton in Mexico until 1867.
Following Benoni Gray's death, the family was unable to maintain its estate for long and eventually had to sell it. His wife went to live with her daughter, and the former slaves scattered across Texas in search of work. Boyd worked as a cotton trader, a cowboy, and as a mill foreman in Montgomery County. Everywhere he went and at every job he worked, Boyd learned valuable skills that would later benefit his own business endeavors. During this time, he changed his name from Dick Gray to Richard Henry Boyd. (3) He kept his grandfather's given name, Richard, out of respect, but never explained why he selected the name "Henry Boyd." In 1868, he married Laura Thomas, but she died eleven months after they were married. Three years later, Boyd married Harriett Albertine Moore, who bore him six children who lived to adulthood. (4)
A self-educated man, Boyd did not learn the alphabet until he was twenty-two years old. While working in Texas, he hired a white girl to teach him to read. (5) The first books he read were Webster's Blue-Backed Speller and McGuffey's First Reader. In 1870, Boyd enrolled in Bishop College, an American Baptist Home Mission Society (ABHMS) Freedman School, in Marshall, Texas, but he was forced to leave after two years because he could not afford to pay the tuition and support his family at the same time. (6)
Boyd was baptized into the membership of Hopewell Baptist Church in Navasota, Texas, on December, 19, 1869. Shortly after his conversion, he felt called to ministry. He was ordained in 1871 and became very active in all aspects of black Texas Baptist life. Boyd pastored the Nineveh Baptist Church in Grimes City, the Union Baptist Church in Palestine, and the Mount Zion Baptist Church in San Antonio. He helped organize the Texas Negro Baptist Convention (TNBC) and served as its missionary and educational secretary from 1870 to 1874. (7) He was also instrumental in organizing black Baptist churches in Waverly, Old Danville, Navasota, Crockett, Palestine, and San Antonio, and he contributed to the founding of the Lincoln District Baptist Association of Navasota in 1875. In 1876, Boyd served as a black Texas Baptist representative at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, and he was the moderator of the Central Baptist Association of Texas in 1879. In Reconstruction Texas, land was inexpensive and the Boyds were able to purchase property in Montgomery County, Palestine, and San Antonio. (8)
Racial Prejudice and Paternalism
Boyd's life and motivation are best understood in the context of racial prejudice and paternalism. During the 1890s, the ABHMS consolidated several of the Freedman Schools throughout the South. (9) Because black students were demanding a voice in their own education, Boyd believed that consolidation was an attempt to exclude blacks from leadership roles in their own schools. (10) Yet, financial considerations certainly factored in the decision to consolidate the schools. The schools were expensive to operate, and the ABHMS received little help from the Southern Baptist Convention (SBC).
The ABHMS also sought to use only American Baptist Publishing Society (ABPS) materials in the Freedman schools and pressed their ministerial graduates to use only ABPS materials in their churches. Boyd opposed this action, believing that black Baptists should have a say in what materials were used in their churches. He particularly despised the ABPS for its paternalistic refusal to publish any materials written by black Baptists. (11) Boyd concluded that black Baptists should write and publish their own materials. The refusal of the ABPS to publish materials written by black authors became the impetus for Boyd's publishing endeavors. At the 1900 meeting of the National Baptist Convention, he stated,
The Negro must furnish his Sunday-school with religious knowledge, his choirs with music, and his fireside and parlors with wholesome literature, written and manufactured by his own energy. The literature that is best for the Caucasian of today is not always best for our children, under the present crisis. Whatever is taught in the Sunday Schools of this generation will be the doctrine of the church in the next generation. (12)
Because many of the black Baptists in Texas and throughout the South had been educated in ABHMS-sponsored Freedman Schools and because the ABHMS had not supported slavery in the Baptist schism of 1845, Boyd's publishing venture not welcomed by the TNBC whose members did not want to break from the ABPS. For this reason, Boyd and his followers left the TNBC and formed the General Missionary Baptist Convention of Texas (GMBC) in 1893. Boyd became the GMBC's superintendent of missions. (13) The TNBC and the GMBC acquired the dubious monikers of the "old convention" and the "new convention," respectively. This division would haunt Boyd for the rest of his life, as many of his antagonists came from the "old convention."
In 1893, in order to devote himself to the dissemination of Sunday School materials in the GMBC, Boyd resigned as pastor of the Mount Zion Church in San Antonio. He reached an agreement with the SBC that allowed for the convention to supply Boyd with materials which he would then sell directly to GMBC churches. In early 1895, Boyd held a meeting of the Sunday School Executive Committee of the Central Baptist Association at the True Vine Church in Navasota. After listening to his motion, committee members unanimously decided to buy their materials from him. On June 4, 1895, Boyd met with the churches of the Palestine Baptist Association of Texas to discuss Sunday School materials. He also convinced them to purchase all their Sunday School and educational materials through him. The following year, the General Baptist Convention of Texas followed suit. (14) These meetings proved to be important to Boyd's future business ventures, and he learned how to network and distribute large quantities of materials. (15)
Many members of the TNBC believed Boyd was merely attempting to remove the ABPS from Texas in order to clear the publishing field for his own endeavors. Samuel Nathanial Vass, the superintendent of the Colored Work of the ABPS, was one of the staunchest opponents of an independent black Baptist Publishing Board. Vass may have realized that the existence of the National Baptist Publishing Board (NBPB) would make his job more difficult. (16) Other TNBC members accused Boyd of having deliberately broken the SBC and ABHMS Fortress Monroe Agreement of 1894. (17) This agreement sought to divide the black Baptist work in the South between the SBC Home Mission Board (HMB) and ABHMS. The three major components of this agreement were: (1) control of the Freedman Schools would remain with the ABHMS, and the SBC would help raise funds for the schools; (2) the Southern Baptist HMB and ABHMS would work together on black mission work; and (3) wherever either the ABHMS or HMB had already established itself, the other would not interfere. (18) By embarking on joint publishing ventures with the SBC, Boyd and the SBC ignored the established work of the ABPS with the black Baptists of Texas.
In 1896, Boyd served as one of the GMBC's representatives at the second annual meeting of the National Baptist Convention in St. Louis, Missouri. At this convention, Boyd was elected corresponding secretary of missions, a position that he held until 1914. At the NBC meeting in 1895, he had called for the creation of the NBPB, which would produce publications that would feature articles written by and for black Baptists. Boyd wanted black Baptists to become less dependent on materials emanating from white churches. He was opposed by Texas' "old convention," which still supported the ABPS, and the motion was initially rejected. Later in the convention, however, he had received enough support, particularly from powerful NBC President Elias C. Morris, (19) to create the NBPB. Until his death in 1922, Boyd served as the secretary of the board. The NBPB was intended to work closely with the HMB. As secretary of both boards, Boyd brought them into a symbiotic relationship that led to the initial success of the NBPB and ensured the survival of the HMB. Boyd appointed home missionaries who also became colporteurs for NBPB materials. (20)
Move to Nashville and the Rise of the National Baptist Publishing Board
Eventually, Boyd resigned his denominational positions in Texas and chose Nashville, Tennessee, the center of religious publishing in the United States, as his new headquarters. (21) Upon his arrival in Nashville, he faced many unexpected problems. The NBC supported Boyd, but had not given him the funds to start the NBPB. He then put up some of his Texas properties as collateral and financed the work himself. With money in hand, he was able to rent a two-room office in the Brown Building on 408 Cedar Street. (22)
J. M. Frost, secretary of the Sunday School Board of the SBC, supplied Boyd with his first publishing plates and introduced him to several local printers, which enabled Boyd to publish the NBPB's first pamphlets in January 1897. (23) Because the first pamphlets were printed on the SBC plates and because not all had been penned by black Baptists, Boyd's detractors derided the pamphlets as nothing more than "black backs which covered white men's brains." (24) Despite internal and ABPS opposition, the NBPB was an overwhelming success.
By taking over the publication of the National Baptist Magazine in 1896 and creating the Teacher's Monthly in 1897, Boyd kept his promise to provide black Baptists with religious materials that had been written by black Baptists. Moreover, he also made a profit. In the first quarter of 1897, the NBPB reported revenues of $1,774.06, with expenses of $1,518.77. That quarter the board distributed more than 180,000 copies of NBPB materials. In 1898, Boyd filed for and received a Tennessee state charter and incorporated the board under his ownership and a self-perpetuating board of trustees. With this charter, the NBPS became an independent entity, no longer under the direct supervision or ownership of the HMB or the NBC. (25) Boyd, undoubtedly, believed that because he financed the NBPB he deserved to be its owner.
During the next few years, the NBPB became increasingly popular with the NBC and continued to produce quality literature written by black Baptists. When Boyd presented his earnings report at the NBC meeting in 1900, the delegates were shocked to learn that the NBPB had spent $49,309.37 but had still managed to turn a small profit. (26) This report, however, was just the beginning. Each year the NBPB published more literature and balanced its books. To publicize the NBPB's newest materials, Boyd convened a Sunday School Congress in 1905. The congress was quite a show, with Bible drill competitions, Sunday School workshops, a brass band, and a gospel choir. Some of the most famous black Baptist pastors preached during its services, and thousands attended the meetings and learned more about the work of the NBPB. (27)
Most of the materials published by the NBPB were periodicals, Sunday School materials, and quarterlies. Boyd did publish several of his own books and the writings of promising black authors. He even published the writings of some who later became his adversaries, including Lewis G. Jordan and A. R. Griggs. Most, but by no means all, of these books had religious themes. Boyd despised Jim Crow and published books deriding it. He even published Maurice Corbett's book, The Harp of Ethiopia, which advocated black violence in response to white violence against blacks. (28) Because the cost of publishing books was expensive and because their publication required too much of the printer's time, the NBPB's staple publications became religious educational materials, quarterlies, and NBC Board news papers, including the youth publication titled National Baptist Union.
Always a vanguard of the publishing world, by 1906, the NBPB was the largest black publishing company in America. (29) Whenever Boyd made money, he immediately reinvested it by purchasing the latest printers and hiring more skilled laborers for the company. (30) In 1909, the NBPB published 11,717,876 issues of its materials. In 1916, the Nashville facilities of the NBPB, which had started in a two-room office, had a value of more $350,000 (31) and occupied six buildings. (32)
Unlike the NBPB, the HMB of the SBC was barely staying afloat. Because the board received almost no funding from the NBC, Boyd stated that he regularly used revenues from the NBPB to fund home mission work. In 1901, Boyd and the NBPB contributed $16,425 to the NBC, with the major portion going to the HMB. Pro-Boyd authors claimed that his gift allowed the NBC to hire additional missionaries and begin NBC work in Panama. (33) Lewis Jordan, a black Baptist historian and one of Boyd's strongest adversaries, asserted that Boyd had paid for nothing and that the majority of the funds provided to the HMB were gifts from the SBC. (34) An examination of the NBC records does not reveal the source of the board's fiscal resources, but with each of Boyd's successes, his critics became more numerous and vocal.
Boyd's opponents accused him of relying too much on his friends in the white SBC. In 1903, he replied in a racially accommodating manner, sounding much like his hero Booker T. Washington, "The interests of the races in the South demand that the kindest and most sympathetic relations should exist. The races should strive in every manner possible to help each other. The white man is our big brother in this country." (35)
Members of the "old convention" in Texas also claimed that Boyd was using his office as secretary of home missions to promote his publishing enterprises at the expense of missions by having the missionaries serve as colporteurs for NBPB literature. In this regard, his enemies had a point. Wherever the HMB employees went, NBPB materials went with them. This practice led to so many complaints that the NBC, under the powerful leadership of its president, Elias Camp Morris, ordered the separation of the NBPB and the HMB in 1904. (36) Boyd ignored this order for more than a decade, confident that that he knew what was best for both boards. He may have been correct. In 1914, the NBC's financial statement showed that NBPB had earned $200,000 and the HMB $65,000. As head of both boards, Boyd had earned $205,100 more than the other five boards combined. (37) With each passing year NBPB revenues grew, and so did the complaints. To protect his NBPB interests, Boyd finally resigned his position as HMB secretary in 1914.
The animosity between Boyd's supporters and those who wanted to see the NBPB under control of the NBC came to a head at the convention's 1915 annual meeting in Chicago. Under the leadership of President Morris, Boyd's adversaries attempted to gain control of his NBPB by incorporating the boards and placing them under direct control of the NBC. Morris asserted that the NBPB was a part of the HMB and fell under its incorporation. Boyd, however, claimed that the NBPB was a completely different and independent organization, as stated in its 1898 charter. Morris and his allies were incensed by Boyd's charter, his arrogance, and unwillingness to cooperate with the NBC. Realizing that further cooperation with the current NBC leadership was pointless, the pro-Boyd delegates left the convention and met at the Salem Baptist Church, where they formed the National Baptist Convention, Unincorporated, or as it was sometimes snidely called, the "Boyd National Convention." (38) Those who backed Morris and incorporation became known as the National Baptist Convention, Incorporated.
The NBC, Inc., then sued Boyd for ownership of the NBPB. After losing the suit, the convention created its own Sunday School publishing board. Boyd devoted the remainder of his life to building the NBPB and the NBC, Unincorporated.
Boyd's Role As a Businessman
Even outside of the publishing field, Boyd was a successful businessman. Along with James C. Napier, who would be appointed register of the United States Treasury in 1911, Boyd helped in 1900 to organize the Nashville Chapter of the Negro Business League. One significant lasting achievement of the league was the creation of the One-Cent Savings and Trust Company Bank on November 5, 1903. Banks for blacks had existed earlier in Nashville, including a Freedman's Bank that had been built in Nashville for former slaves in 1865, but had fallen on hard times and collapsed in 1874. (39) Several abortive attempts were subsequently made to open other black banks. Success in this endeavor finally came when Boyd led in founding the One-Cent Savings and Trust Company Bank, which was built specifically for Nashville's black citizens. Along with the other founders, Boyd believed that white banks looked down on the small deposits of their black customers. By adopting the name One-Cent, the bank made a statement that every customer was important, even if he or she had only a penny. With Boyd as its president, the bank transacted $832,968.97 and had assets of more than $80,000 in 1912. (40) The bank has continued to serve Nashville's black and white communities and is known today as the Citizen's Savings and Trust Bank.
In December 1905, Boyd created the Globe, a black newspaper that contained articles on all aspects of black life in Nashville and provided advertisement for Boyd's other business endeavors. Its January 18, 1911, edition contained Boyd's mission statement for the paper: "The Globe came into existence as a much needed weapon of defense, a champion of its people's rights." (41) With the founding of the Globe, the fight against Jim Crow laws in Nashville had its own periodical to rally the black citizens. The paper frequently ran editorials on the political stakes in upcoming elections and encouraged black citizens to vote. Because the Globe purchased its paper from the NBPB, located its offices in the NBPB building, and used NBPB printers, Boyd's detractors accused him of using the NBPB to further his other business endeavors and enrich himself.
In 1902, Boyd opened the National Baptist Church Supply Company. Along with his business partners, he created a clearinghouse for large church supply companies. They sold everything from pipe organs, pews, and pulpits to Easter supplies and communion tables. The company advertised it supplies in the Globe and was housed in a building owned by the NBPB. Once again, Boyd's detractors believed he was using the NBPB to line his own pockets. (42)
Boyd also designed and marketed a line of Negro dolls, which were not meant to be a money-making endeavor, but an expression of black pride. The dolls were endorsed by the NBC in 1908 and sold at the Sunday School Congress and the NBC annual meeting. Boyd advertised the dolls in the Globe. Describing the dolls, Boyd stated, "These dolls are not made of that disgraceful and humiliating type that we have grown accustomed to seeing Negro dolls made of. They represent the intelligent and refined Negro of the day, rather than the type of toy that is usually given to children and, as a rule, used as a scarecrow." (43) The dolls were housed and shipped from the NBPB buildings, and again, Boyd drew the ire of his naysayers.
Despite constant criticism and opposition, Boyd succeeded in virtually all of his business ventures. For this reason, Nashville's annual Minority Business Fair and Banquet met in Boyd's honor well into the 1990s. (44) He was also involved in both Nashville and national politics. His interest in politics, however, was limited to crusading against Jim Crow laws and advancing Civil Rights. As early as March 10, 1900, Boyd sent a circular to all the pastors of the NBC urging them and their congregations to vote in defiance of the Jim Crow laws that attempted to disenfranchise blacks. Boyd asked the pastors to "carefully guard the political interest of the Negro race" and to make sure their male members were well-informed of the issues at stake. (45)
Boyd's Roles in Politics, Education, and Civil Rights
Boyd soon became an instrumental person in politics and a valued endorsement for any candidate who desired to capture Nashville's black vote. Boyd used his influence to help black causes in Nashville. In particular, he promised to help reelect Mayor Hilary Howse if the mayor would build the black community a new secondary school. The existing black school, Pearl High School, had been built in 1883 and had been under-funded. The school was overcrowded, and the surrounding streets became cesspools whenever the Cumberland River flooded. Boyd's endorsement ensured Howse's reelection and the construction of a new Pearl High School in 1916. Although the new school was still inferior to the city's white high school, it was an improvement. Boyd, however, was not appeased and expressed his fury in the Globe. His complaints, however, were to no avail. The third Pearl High School was built in 1937. Although Boyd did not live to see its construction, his grandchildren were among its students. (46)
On March 30, 1905, the Tennessee General Assembly passed a law segregating the state's street cars. Boyd and other prominent black citizens, including James C. Napier, organized a boycott of Nashville streetcars that took effect on July 31, 1905. Because many black citizens took the inexpensive streetcars to work, the boycott proved problematic, and as a result, Boyd and Napier decided to create their own streetcar company, the Union Transportation Company. This company began service with five steam automobiles on September 29, 1905. (47) The streetcars, however, were not powerful enough to climb the hills of Nashville, which forced the company out of business within a year. (48) In spite of this setback, Boyd and Nashville's black citizens had made their point. Jim Crow laws would be protested and boycotted, and alternative avenues would be investigated and, if need be, taken, in order to further equality.
In 1917, Boyd promoted the enlistment of black soldiers to fight in World War I. He saw this as an opportunity for blacks to demonstrate their patriotism. When the soldiers arrived at their training camp, Boyd sent his son, Henry Allen Boyd, to preach and minister to them. Henry brought back pictures and letters from the soldiers and wrote articles about them in the Globe. (49)
Because he had been deprived of a formal education himself, Boyd came to realize the advantages of education. He played a central role in the growth of Bishop College. He supported Guadalupe College, Boyd's Normal Institute, Central Texas College, and the National Baptist Theological and Missionary Training Seminary. He also fought for the preservation of Roger Williams University in Nashville when the ABHMS dosed it in 1907. Under Boyd's leadership, the university reopened its doors in 1909. (50) Because of his contributions to black education, he received honorary doctorates from Guadalupe College and Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical State College.
While serving the NBPB and promoting civil rights, Boyd wrote fourteen books, the most influential of which were Baptist Catechism and Doctrine (1899), National Baptist Pastor's Guide (1900), National Jubilee Melody Songbook (n.d.), and The Separate or "Jim Crow" Car Laws (1909). Boyd also found time to join civic organizations such as the Knights of Phythias, the Masons, the Odd Fellows, and the National Negro Business League.
Boyd died of a cerebral hemorrhage in his Nashville home on August 22, 1922. Three thousand people attended the funeral in the Ryman Auditorium, and Boyd was interred at the Greenwood Cemetery in Nashville. (51) The NBC, Unincorporated, moved its September annual meeting from Denver to Nashville in honor of its patriarch.
Assessment of Boyd's Life and Contributions
As a black Baptist leader, Boyd dearly drew either unending support or undying opposition. Sources on black Baptist history written before the 1950s reflect the fact that Boyd's work was met with either great affection or great animosity. Separating the deep admiration or hostility among Boyd's contemporaries from the reality of his ministry and businesses is therefore difficult.
Boyd was a self-made man with a strong sense of independence, which defined his actions, ministries, and business endeavors. Once a slave with nothing to his name, he shaped black Baptist life through the NBPB and became one of Nashville's most successful businessmen, black or white. When he decided on a plan, little could dissuade him. Those who dared disagree with him did so at their own risk. His tenacity made him arrogantly unbending when he believed he was correct. Boyd was adept at running the NBPB, and many of the leaders of the early NBC (like those of the SBC Sunday School Board and ABPS) did not have his business acumen. Yet, Boyd's refusal to allow anyone outside of his immediate family to have any say in the operations and direction of the NBPB smacked of nepotism and made him a polarizing figure. Prior to his death, Boyd made sure that control of the NBPB would pass to his son, Henry Allen Boyd. Although many of the personal attacks and caustic questions that he and the NBPB encountered were born out of jealousy, he answered them either brusquely or not at all. When ordered to separate the HMB and the NBPB by the NBC in 1904, he ignored the order for more than ten years. Boyd's rejection of any NBC oversight of the NBPB undoubtedly was the primary cause of the 1915 schism.
In many regards, Boyd was an entrepreneur with an extraordinary mind for business. He was a master of publicity, as noted by the success of the Sunday School Congress and its effect on NBPB sales. Almost everything he attempted became a success. In an era of Jim Crow laws and lynchings, Boyd broke all the derogatory stereotypes of black men and promoted racial pride. Against the wishes of many of his fellow black Baptists, Boyd broke the paternalistic hold of the ABPS on black Baptist literature and cultivated the latent talent of many black Baptist authors. He was also not afraid to embrace white Baptists as long as they accepted him as an equal. His friendship with J. M. Frost and the SBC's Sunday School Board was crucial in his establishment of the NBPB.
In evaluating the work of Boyd, the words of Elias C. Morris are the most eloquent: "It is plainly evident that as a denomination we shall never attain to the broad influence and elevated dignity worthy of so vast a body of Baptists, so long as our literary productions remain unpublished, our works unsystematized, and success remains dependant upon the option of our friends for prosecution." (52) Richard Henry Boyd, therefore, should be remembered as a man who gave dignity to the NBC through his publishing endeavors and influenced the black Baptist identity.
(1.) Bobby L. Lovett, How it Came to Be: The Boyd Family's Contribution to African American Religious Publishing from the 19th to the 21st Century (Nashville: Mega Publishing Corporation, 2007), 1-3. Prior to 1900, the majority of the biographical sources on the life of Richard Henry Boyd hold conflicting information. Sources disagree on, for example, the date and location of his birth, his life as a slave, his associational roles, his pastorates, and even the number of his children. In this paper, I have attempted to use the most consistent and reliable sources.
(2.) Carter Godwin Woodson, "Richard Henry Boyd," Dictionary of American Biography (1929): 528.
(3.) Zipporah G. Glass, "Richard Henry Boyd," American National Biography (1999): 316-17.
(4.) Elias C. Morris, Sermons, Addresses, and Reminiscences, and Important Correspondence, reprint ed. (New York Arno Press, 1980), 278.
(5.) Globe, April 12, 1940.
(6.) Woodson, "Richard Henry Boyd," 528.
(7.) Morris, Sermons, Addresses, and Reminiscences, 278.
(8.) Lovett, How it Came to Be, 9.
(9.) Glass, "Richard Henry Boyd," 316-17.
(10.) A. W. Pegues, Our Baptist Ministers and Schools (Springfield, MA.: Willey and Co., 1892), 29.
(11.) Richard Henry Boyd, The Story of the National Baptist Publishing Board: The Why, How, When, Where and by Whom It was Established (Nashville: National Baptist Publishing Board, 1924), 5.
(12.) Program, Tenth Annual Session, National Baptist Convention, Richmond, Virginia, September 12-17, 1900, 31.
(13.) Glass, "Richard Henry Boyd," 316-17.
(14.) Boyd, The Story, 15-21.
(15.) Bobby L. Lovett, A Black Man's Dream: The First 100 Years, Richard Henry Boyd and the National Baptist Publishing Board (Jacksonville, NC: Mega Corporation, 1993), 24-25.
(16.) Ibid., 28.
(17.) Glass, "Richard Henry Boyd," 316-17.
(18.) Harry Leon McBeth, The Baptist Heritage: Four Centuries of Baptist Witness (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1987), 430-31.
(19.) Lewis G. Jordan, Negro Baptist History, U.S.A., 1759-1930 (Nashville: Sunday School Publishing Board of the NBC, ca. 1930), 249-50.
(20.) Ibid., 250.
(22.) Boyd, The Story, 63.
(23.) Ibid., 38.
(24.) Jordan, Negro Baptist History, 250-51.
(25.) Boyd, The Story, 119-23.
(26.) Program, Tenth Annual Session, 184.
(27.) Lovett, A Black Man's Dream, 86-90.
(28.) Ibid., 66.
(29.) Lovett, How it Came to Be, 53-54.
(30.) Ibid., 40.
(31.) Lovett, A Black Man's Dream, 116.
(32.) Lovett, How it Came to Be, 54.
(33.) Lovett, A Black Man's Dream, 67.
(34.) Jordan, Negro Baptist History, 253.
(35.) National Baptist Union-Review, February 21, 1903.
(36.) Leroy Fitts, A History of Black Baptists (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1985), 92.
(37.) National Baptist Union-Review, October 17, 1914, 8.
(38.) Fitts, A History of Black Baptists, 92-93.
(39.) Lovett, A Black Man's Dream, 147.
(40.) Globe, March 29, 1912.
(41.) Ibid., January 18, 1911.
(42.) Lovett, A Black Man's Dream, 154.
(43.) Globe, December 3, 1909.
(45.) Circular Letter, R. H. Boyd to Pastors in the Tennessee Baptist Churches, March 10, 1900, NBPBLA.
(46.) Lovett, A Black Man's Dream, 139.
(47.) Lena Marbury, "The 1905 Streetcar Boycott in Nashville" (M.S. thesis, Tennessee State University, 1985), 11, 21, 34, 56.
(48.) Lester C. Lamon, Blacks in Tennessee, 1791-1970 (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1981), 33-35.
(49.) The Globe, November 24, 1917.
(50.) Lovett, A Black Man's Dream, 136-41.
(51.) Ibid., 132-33.
(52.) Morris, Sermons, Addresses, and Reminiscences, 59.
Joe Early, Jr., is assistant professor of religion at the University of the Cumberlands, Williamsburg, Kentucky.…