Wildlife Utilization: A New International Mechanism for the Protection of Biological Diversity

Article excerpt

Conserving biological diversity is not simply a matter of establishing protected areas and rescuing threatened species. Though clearly essential, protecting species often does not meet people's (and nations') short-term needs and consequently may not withstand the pressures of population growth and resource exploitation. Biodiversity must also be studied for its role in the biosphere and potential use, and used through sustainable management systems that provide for future as well as present human needs.

Introduction 305

I. Economic Foundations of Wildlife Utilization 318

A. The Theory of Comparative Advantage 321

B. Foreign Exchange and Export Diversification

Requirements 322

C. Recent Resurgence in Biotechnological Research 322

II. The Rio Convention On Biological Diversity:

Recognizing The Economic Value Of Biological

Diversity 324

A. Background on the Biodiversity Convention 324

B. The Travaux Preparatories 325

C. Evaluating the Potential for U.S. Participation 333

III. Forms Of Investment In Wildlife Utilization:

Capturing The Economic Value Of Biological

Diversity 334

A. Biological Extraction 335

B. Biological Prospecting 336

C. Sample Collecting Agreements 340

E. Eco Tourism 342

F. Community Development 343

IV. The Aims And Potential Of Wildlife Utilization 343

A. From the Perspective of Developing Countries 343

1. Attraction of Foreign Investment 346

2. Diversification of the Export Base 347

3. Generation of Foreign Exchange 348

4. Transfer of Modern Technology 348

5. Linkages with the Local Economy 349

6. Protection of Natural Habitats and Indigenous

Communities 350

7. Regional Development 350

8. Emergence of Biotechnology Industry 351

9. Preservations of Biodiversity for Future

Generations 351

B. From the Perspective of Transnational Corporations 353

1. Access to Biological Resources 353

2. Access to Local Expertise and Qualified Labor 354

3. Duty Free Import Regimes 354

4. Reduction of Research and Development

Expenditures 354

5. Home Market Competitiveness 355

C. From the Perspective of Domestic Investors 355

1. Strengthen International Competitiveness 355

2. Benefit from Special Investment Measures 355

3. Transfer of Modern Technology 356

D. From the Perspective of Industrialized Countries 356

1. Development of the Biotechnology Industry 356

2. Global Ecosystem Services 357

3. Protection of Biodiversity for Future Generations 357

4. Lower Consumer Prices 357

5. International Competitiveness 357

6. Strengthening of the Free Market System 357

7. Preservation of International Peace and Security 357

V. Law and Policy Recommendations for a Wildlife

Utilization Strategy 357

A. …