Jordanian Working Women's Perception of Life Difficulties

Article excerpt

Abstract

This study is an attempt to identify Jordanian working-women's perception of their life difficulties. Areas of life's difficulties include: psychological, social, political and career. Such difficulties were investigated across five variables: age, education, employment, years of experience and civil status. Each variable included subgroups. The sample consisted of 186 subjects living in the Amman district. Subjects responded to a questionnaire about life difficulties. The questionnaire's internal reliability as well as test-retest reliability ranged from .79 to .92. Statistical analysis of data consisted of ANOVA analysis of variance and the Scheffe test of differences between groups. Results were tested at the .5-level or better. Jordanian women reported significant differences in all four areas of life's difficulties.

Keywords: Working women, Life difficulties, Jordanian women

Introduction

Research studies carried out in many countries report that women face difficulties, obstacles and inequalities in several aspects of life. That is mainly in education, career, social life, and political involvements. American women have been leaders in their efforts to advance women's rights. Women have been engaged in every facet of national and international affairs, such as policymaking, decision-making, arms control, trade, courtroom, and key positions in state departments.

However, Harrison (1997) reported that the transformation to a society of complete equality has not yet been fully realized. Bander (1997) documented that changes in law, politics and society have had significant impact on contemporary women's lives including their choice of careers. Yet, the battle of parity, equal opportunity and enlightened attitudes have not yet been completely won. McGivrney (1993) found that for British women, the most effective reentry threshold learning activities shared features common to all good community education. However, women experienced problems in moving from an informal to a formal education. This was largely due to lack of information and guidance, coherent learning Reuters, support and practical assistance.

Jordan has adopted many programs that aimed to enhance women's participation in the country's development and improve their life conditions. These programs have been designed to support women throughout the country. That is, in realizing a positive change in their lives, and improving conditions in the society as a whole. So, women's participation in the development process, both as a beneficiary and partner, is designed to correct the demographic balance, through the provision of literacy and education program as well as family participation in household affairs.

Jordanian Women's Life Conditions

Jordan has adopted legal frameworks regulating Jordanian women's rights based on broad equality basis with men. These frameworks emanated from the international agreements and declarations pertaining to women rights which Jordan has ratified. In addition, there are the articles of the Jordanian constitution (1990), which reinforced the Jordanian national charter. In which, article (8a) of chapter five reads; "Jordanian men and women are equal before the law with no discrimination between them in rights and duties", where\as in" (8;b). Women and men are partners in the growth and development of Jordanian society".

However, Jordanian women participation in decision-making positions is still limited. Three women were appointed as members in the Upper House. Only one woman succeeded in getting the membership at the Lower House of the Parliament in 1997 and 2001. One woman has been appointed Minister in every cabinet of Ministries. Five women joined the judicature office. In addition, the percentage of women's participation in political parties has been around 10 %. At the trade unions level, total women's participation has been 18 %.

The General Statistics Department (1999) clarified that Jordanian women prefer to work in public sectors particularly in education, health, and office work. …