Putting the "And" Back in the Culture-Nature Debate: Integrated Cultural and Natural Heritage Protection

Article excerpt

  I. INTRODUCTION
 II. CULTURAL & NATURAL HERITAGE: AN OVERVIEW
     A. Cultural Heritage
     B. Natural Heritages
     C. Nature Conservation Strategies Worldwide
     D. The Links Between Cultural and Natural
        Heritage
     E. Characteristics of Sites of Overlapping Cultural
        & Natural Heritage
III. The Present and Future of Integrated Cultural &
        Natural Heritage Management
     A. Challenges Posed to Protecting Cultural and
        Natural Heritage
     B. Existing Legal/Regulatory Efforts to Protect
        Cultural and Natural Heritage
        1. Developed Countries
           a. The United States
           b. The European Union
              (1) England
                  (a) National Parks
                  (b) Areas of Outstanding Natural
                      Beauty
                  (c) Conservation Areas
              (2) Dartmoor National Park
                  (a) The Dartmoor Local Plan
                  (b) Local Plan Aims
                  (c) Local Plan Landscapes
           c. Canada
        2. Developing Countries
           a. China
           b. Brazil
 IV. CONCLUSION
     A. Why Integrate Cultural and Natural Heritage
        Protection?
     B. Bridging Boundaries for Mutual Gain

I. INTRODUCTION

Formal legal efforts to protect cultural and natural heritage are not a modern phenomenon. In the developed and developing worlds, regional, state, and local governments undertake efforts to protect their cultural heritage and their natural resources. Most cultural and natural resource protection regimes, however, have evolved independently of one another. This is only recently beginning to change. As scholars, regulators, and activists increasingly recognize the links and overlap between areas of cultural and natural heritage, they are beginning to come together to develop new regimes for joint cultural and environmental protection.

These early efforts jointly to protect cultural and natural heritage vary significantly in character and success. These variations reflect a still vague and evolving understanding of the interplay between culture and nature, the relationship between public and private land ownership, and significant regional differences in existing legal regimes, economic development, and environmental agendas.

Further, there is currently very little comprehensive research examining global efforts to develop heritage protection areas that integrate both cultural and natural resource conservation. There is even less research analyzing how relationships between land ownership and social conceptions of culture and nature impact the development of future cultural and natural heritage programs.

The goal of this paper is to contribute to and encourage the development of innovative, interdisciplinary approaches for the protection, preservation, and enhancement of natural and cultural heritage areas. The second section of this paper examines traditional notions and regulatory regimes for cultural and natural heritage protection, and delves into the links between cultural and natural heritage. Section three analyzes existing cultural heritage and environmental/natural protection laws, and provides examples of joint cultural and natural heritage preservation efforts. In particular, section three considers how current and prospective joint cultural and natural heritage protection efforts in developed and developing countries contribute to the social and economic development of communities and regions, and advance the principles of sustainable development by strengthening the historical continuity of a place and its people, and by guiding development in ways consistent with the characteristics of these cultural and natural resources. Additionally, section three examines case studies in the United States, Europe, Canada, Brazil, and China to demonstrate the challenges and critical elements integral to developing innovative and sustainable cultural and natural heritage preservation schemes. …