Determinants of Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Article excerpt

Using a sample of 93 superior-subordinate dyads from various organizations in India, this study looked at the relationships between leader's organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), transformational leadership, and follower's OCB. It also looked at leader's public self-consciousness and self-monitoring as antecedents to leader OCB, and leader's social skills and even-temperedness as antecedents to follower OCB. Results show that public self-consciousness is positively related to leader OCB, leader OCB is positively related to transformational leadership, and transformational leadership, social skills, and even-temperedness are positively related to follower OCB.

Introduction

As activities increasingly span departmental or functional boundaries, the need for teamwork, shared responsibilities, and consultative activities is unusually high. Employees may need to exhibit a high degree of behavior not explicitly detailed in formal job descriptions. In addition, at the managerial levels, job descriptions are not exhaustive and often managers are expected to engage in organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Paine, & Bachrach, 2000). As it would be beneficial for an organization if its members were to engage in OCB, the next important question would be: How can organizations increase these OCBs? Transformational leaders motivate and inspire their followers to go beyond the call of duty so that they are willing to put in extra effort on the job, help their co-workers, and engage in other organizationally beneficial activities (Bass, 1998). This paper looks at the role of leader's two personality dimensions (social skills and even-temperedness) and transformational leadership in influencing the emergence of OCB in followers. It also examines one behavioral dimension (leader OCB) as an antecedent to transformational leadership, and leader's two personality dimensions (public self-consciousness and self-monitoring) as antecedents to Leader OCB.

Theory and Hypotheses

Transformational Leadership

Downton (1973) coined the term transformational leadership but it is Burns' (1978) work that led to the emergence of transformational leadership as an important approach to leadership. Burns (1978) described transformational leadership as a relationship in which leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of morality and motivation. Transformational leadership can be viewed as a micro level process between individuals and as a macro level process that changes the social systems and reforms institutions (Yukl, 2001). Bass (1985) built on Burns (1978) work and described transformational leadership in terms of the impact that it has on followers; they feel trust, admiration and loyalty towards the leader who encourages them to perform beyond expectations.

Several studies have shown that transformational leadership results in enhanced effectiveness and subordinate satisfaction (Dumdum, Lowe, & Avolio, 2002). Transformational leadership positively predicts subordinate extra effort and performance beyond expectations, along with higher levels of commitment, cohesion, potency, identification, trust, and satisfaction (Avolio, 2004). Hater and Bass (1988) found that subordinates' ratings of transformational leadership differentiated top performing managers from ordinary managers. Kirkpatrick & Locke (1996) found that vision implementation through task cues and communication style (components of transformational leadership) had a differential impact on followers' attitudes and performance. Schyns (2001) found that transformational leadership was positively related to follower's occupational self-efficacy. Contextual variables can affect the receptivity to transformational leadership (Shamir, & Howell, 1999). Felfe and Schyns (2002) showed that task demands moderated the relationship between transformational leadership and follower's self-efficacy. …