Among the wealth of books on nineteenth-century subjects published last year, three trends may be discerned. First, there is the large number of transgeneric studies, by which I mean those that address colonialism, postcolonialism, gender, sex, race, psychoanalysis, and linguistics and attempt to show how they intersect. Where formerly a writer might focus on just one of these topics, it has apparently become de rigeur to consider most or all of them together. One writer, for example, apologizes for not including lesbianism in his study of British colonialism and male homosexuality (Christopher Lane, The Ruling Passion: British Colonial Allegory and the Paradox of Homosexual Desire, p. xi). Second, there is the plethora of collections of essays, mostly originating in conferences, that constitute what Clifford Siskin calls "an increasing popular scholarly genre: the 'So what?' genre" (Jane Austen and Discourses of Feminism, ed. Devoney Looser, p. 51). Third, there is the growing quantity of truly impressive studies devoted to art, artists, and the relationship between visual art and literature.
Given the current popularity of cultural studies that touch on works from various parts of the century, it is impossible to categorize many books as either Romantic or Victorian. In what follows I have, somewhat arbitrarily, considered works under rubrics subject to a certain amount of slippage. Also given the quantity of books received and the space allowed, I have been unable to review them all. To the authors of those I have omitted or given but brief notice I apologize.
ROMANTICISM AND ROMANTIC POETS
Questioning Romanticism, eleven original essays edited by John Beer, is dedicated to rethinking the shifting grounds of Romantic theory. Each writer deals with some major question concerning Romanticism and its history. A. C. Goodson addresses Romantic theory and the critique of language; Anne K. Mellor Romantic women literary critics; Martin Aske the language of ressentiment prevalent within the discursive field of Romantic criticism; Philip W. Martin the politics of criticism, focusing on John Clare's "imitation" of Byron; and Nigel Leask Thomas De Quincey's argument with Coleridge's interpretation of German aesthetics and his (De Quincey's) attempt to reach a universal aesthetic by treating murder as carnival and tragedy. Drummond Bone, overlooking much recent pertinent theoretical material, considers whether it makes sense to speak of a Europe-wide Romanticism; Susan Wolfson the Romantic engagement with poetic form in traditional contours while interrogating critically these forms and the formalist aesthetic; Tilottama Rajan the radically phenomenological character of Hegel's Aesthetics as opposed to its (usually understood) idealist character; Frederick Burwick the Romantic concept of mimesis as both idem and alter; Lucy Newlyn the aesthetics of indeterminacy and what kind and degree of freedom Romantic indeterminacy envisages for the reader; and John Beer the unity of Romanticism that is to be found only in its uncertainties, its questionings, and its fragmentations. In a collection of somewhat similar concern, Intersections: Nineteenth-Century Philosophy and Contemporary Theory, edited by David L. Clark and the ubiquitous Tilottama Rajan, various writers investigate the relationship between contemporary and post-Enlightenment theory. All the essays are estimable, and while it is admittedly invidious to single out any one for special commendation, I should nevertheless like to mention Rajan's essay on Nietzsche and deconstruction, Ned Lukacher's on Friedrich Nietzsche and Sigmund Freud, Thomas Pfau's on the languages of moral agency and critical discourse, and Stanley Corngold's on Schopenhauer and Paul de Man.
In Centring the Self: Subjectivity, Society, and Reading from Thomas Gray to Thomas Hardy Vincent Newey has gathered a number of his essays, many previously published, under the rubric of self-hood. Ranging widely, they examine how various authors turn inward to find within the self sources of order undiscoverable in the phenomenal world. This, of course, is not a novel idea - and Newey knows it. But he tries to put a new twist on the subject by examining recent critiques of Romantic ideology and urging "existentialism" as the best philosophy for the modern individual. Wesleyan University Press has made available the late Morse Peckham's collection of essays previously published by a small press in 1985 and for the most part unknown to most students of nineteenth-century culture. The pieces in Romanticism and Ideology address the Romantic tradition, the "uses of ideology," and Peckham's theory of art and criticism in the author's usually provocative way. Always something of an outsider in academic circles and never properly appreciated by the scholarly community at large, Morse Peckham was an important thinker who widened the understanding of nineteenth-century music, literature, painting, and philosophy for those who read and relished his works. It is heartening that the Wesleyan Press has undertaken to spread his fame by publishing Peckham's final book, The Romantic Virtuoso, earlier in 1995 and now this collection of essays heretofore not easily come by.
In A Defense of Poetry: Reflections on the Occasion of Writing, Paul H. Fry, arguing against the widely held critical and philosophical assumptions of our time, maintains that literature can be defined - as "ostension," the disclosure not of the purpose or structure of existence but of existence itself. His subtle argument cannot be adequately spelled out here, so I shall briefly say that ostension is a temporary release of consciousness from its dependence on the signifying process. Though it can occur only by means of history and structure, it is yet ultimately beyond both. Drawing on Martin Heidegger, Theodor Adorno, Gaston Bachelard, and Clement Rosset to situate his argument with Enlightenment, he ends by aligning himself with Maurice Blanchot, Francois Lyotard, and, to a lesser degree, Fredric Jameson in looking to literature as a redemptive suspension of knowledge. Along the way there are chapters on William Wordsworth and the nonepiphanic, on John Keats and the tension between history and existence, and on the sublime, all intended to demonstrate how the ostensive moment is different from the epiphanic, aesthetic, and sublime moments. In addition, there are chapters on the epitaphic in Wordsworth and Lord Byron that deal with the Romantic turn away from the discourse of dying to evoke and relieve that desire for the dead that language cannot lessen. It may strike a few of Fry's readers that his position bears some relationship to that of some of the German idealists of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In any case, it will strike nearly all of his readers that this wise and elegant book of great critical sophistication and finesse, is a worthy namesake of Percy Shelley's essay.
Willard Spiegelman's Majestic Indolence: English Romantic Poetry and the Work of Art examines the trope of indolence in Romantic poetry - in Wordsworth's "wise passiveness," Samuel Taylor Coleridge's "dejection," Keats's figures of indolence, and Shelley's pastoral moments that picture the highest good as a life of leisure. Curiously, Spiegelman skips that greatest poet of indolence in the Romantic tradition - Alfred Tennyson - and ends with two Americans, Walt Whitman and Robert Frost, who are said to have refashioned the older versions of pastoral, which extolled the virtues of otium, to create new forms. There are many excellent readings of individual poems, and it is in these that the chief value of the book lies. Spiegelman does not, in my judgment, sufficiently explore the theme of torpor and inaction in the nineteenth century. He does not, for example, consider how the Romantic imagination so often focused on preconceptions of reality ("Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard / Are sweeter") and thus questioned the value of action and in time led to what used to be called aboulia, the loss of the will to act, that resonates throughout the literature of the later part of the century. In Romance, Poetry, and Surgical Sleep, an interesting (if critically unsophisticated) addendum to Elaine Scarry's The Body in Pain, E. M. Papper, an anesthesiologist, aims to show how literature influences medicine. Where formerly pain and suffering were thought to be a punishment for sin, the works of Coleridge, Shelley, and Thomas Lovell Beddoes manifest a change in attitude toward suffering, and in doing so help pave the way for the use of anesthesia in surgery and childbirth.
Anthony John Harding's The Reception of Myth in English Romanticism, refreshing in that it deals with a type of criticism fallen almost totally into disfavor, investigates the sources to which the Romantics turned and the schools of mythography that influenced their views of myths. It explains, for example, the Theocritean background of several Wordsworthian poems and shows how the poet defeminized the pastoral. It portrays "Christabel" as not the mere Gothic narrative that it is often taken to be but as a work of Romantic mythopoesis; and it compares Coleridge's and Shelley's experience and use of the Prometheus of Aeschylus. Although the book does not satisfy the expectations promised by its title, it is full of illuminating local insights and, more generally, thoughts on myth as a vehicle of ideology. Dealing with another kind of myth, in Napoleon and English Romanticism Simon Bainbridge studies how in the work of the Lake Poets, Byron, and William Hazlitt the historic general was transformed into a powerful mythic figure to be used by the writers in their engagements with contemporary politics and culture. Although influenced by New Historicism, Bainbridge writes a level-headed prose that avoids its extravagances, arguing, for example, against Alan Liu's stress on Wordsworth's denial of history in The Prelude.
Gary Harrison undertakes in Wordsworth's Vagrant Muse: Poetry, Poverty, and Power to track the modulations in eighteenth-century discourses on poverty and to demonstrate the sociopolitical significance of Wordsworth's poetry as an important force in the debate over the Poor Laws and the relief of the poor in the 1790s and again in the 1830s. Diverging from those critics who hold that Wordsworth's poetry affirms bourgeois attitudes toward the poor, Harrison argues that in such poems as "The Old Cumberland Beggar" and "Resolution and Independence" Wordsworth showed a true sympathy for the poor, investing his paupers and vagrants with an economic and moral power that stimulated middle-class readers to confront the question of poverty in others and the possibility of impoverishment in their own lives. Carefully locating Wordsworth's poems within the context of various discourses on poverty, Harrison offers a convincing answer to the paradoxical question of how the conservative Wordsworth, as he is widely regarded, produced poems evoking utopian responses in his readers. In a book with a similar title, Romantic Vagrancy: Wordsworth and the Simulation of Freedom, but with an entirely different vocabulary, Celeste Langan deals with Wordsworth's representation of walking as an exercise of the imagination. What interests her is how concern for the dignity of the individual, which she identifies as the ethos of liberalism, becomes what she calls the pathos of liberalism. Situating this pathos in Romanticism, specifically in vagrancy, "the framing issue of Romantic form and content" (p. 14), she turns first to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, for evidence of her contention that the liberal subject is constituted by texts, before considering the 1800 Lyrical Ballads (to show the theme of impoverishment in relation to the idea of literary property), The Prelude (to show why the liberal text cannot repress its pathological content, vagrancy), and The Excursion (to show it as a representation of the dead body politic). In pursuit of demonstrating how the Romantic thematic of vagrancy is but a simulation of freedom, a "negative freedom" lying at the center of liberalism, Langan sets up her argument within a Marxist framework that also borrows heavily from a number of other theoretical approaches. Many readers of this book, which curiously omits even mention of some works that would seem pertinent, such as Charlotte Smith's Letters of a Solitary Wanderer (1800), will find it hard going.
In The "Lucy Poems": A Case Study in Literary Knowledge, Mark Jones argues that the grouping of Wordsworth's "Lucy Poems" into a narrative cycle, something unauthorized by the poet himself and yet something that persists to this day, evidences the academy's will to knowledge. Beginning with an account of Wordsworth's own arrangements of the poems in various editions and continuing with discussion of Victorian and modern readings of the series, Jones regards the rearrangement as an indication of an underlying theoretical debate between closural and anticlosural hermeneutics. In the end he opts for the indeterminate, anticlosural practices of reading such as espoused by Geoffrey Hartman. The refusal to totalize, Jones believes, embraces the moral aesthetic of self-discipline. Elizabeth A. Fay's complex Becoming Wordsworthian is difficult to describe without making it sound slightly preposterous, which it most certainly is not. Looking at the poet in terms of what she calls "performative aesthetics," she argues that the poet "Wordsworth" was a performance of the man himself and also of William and Dorothy Wordsworth combined. Fay reconstructs the aesthetic moment of the pair's collaborative experience by taking into account the literary landscape and pastoral landscape of the Lake District. She begins by mapping out the Wordsworths' imaginative geography, then turns to a discussion of the "pastoral sublime" that treats of female figures (such as the Solitary Reaper) in the landscape, follows with situating Dorothy into the aesthetic map, questions Dorothy's role in construction of a Wordsworthian sublime, and concludes with a consideration of the woman's possible means of aesthetic discovery. This is a provocative book of mythopoetic criticism that will probably shock many Wordsworthians, but it is also one that they cannot responsibly disregard.
At this point may be inserted mention of Paul Alpers's What Is Pastoral?, which deals both synchronically and diachronically with writers of pastoral from Roman times on, among whom are four nineteenth-century figures - Wordsworth, Tennyson, George Eliot, and Hardy. Few works included in my survey evince the breadth of reading and the scope of learning displayed in this magisterial work of literary history. Arguing that the central fiction of pastoral - herdsmen and their lives - enables the writer to deal with loss and maintain a sense of community, Alpers's analysis ranges from Virgil to Frost. Absent from consideration are the well-known pastorals by Shelley and Matthew Arnold and works other than "Tears, Idle Tears" by Tennyson, perhaps the Victorian poet most deeply steeped in the pastoral mode. This is not a criticism of a work that covers two millennia but a wish that it were longer, a statement that can be made about a very small number of critical books.
Rosemary Ashton's The Life of Samuel Taylor Coleridge is part of the Blackwell Critical Biography series, and like everything else that Ashton has done it is first-rate. Unlike most other books on Coleridge it treats the whole life, not simply the first thirty years. Ashton's comments on Coleridge's prose works and on the Germanic influences on him are shrewd, and those on the poetry are perspicacious. Elucidating difficult concepts as well as making the often-baffling figure of the poet-philosopher come alive, this is a critical biography that can be recommended to both the scholar and the general reader. Coleridge is also blessed by the work of H. J. Jackson and J. R. de J. Jackson, who have edited his Shorter Works and Fragments in two volumes. These form volume eleven of The Collected Works of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, thirteen of whose eventual thirty or so volumes have now been published. Among these shorter works are the substantial essays "Theory of Life," "Essays on the Principles of Genial Criticism," "Treatise on Method," "Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit," "On the Passions," and "On the Prometheus of Aeschylus." In addition there are more than 400 other pieces, many previously unpublished, dating from the early 1790s to 1834. All are presented chronologically. The Jacksons, who have separately edited other volumes in the series, display the same editorial expertise they have demonstrated previously.
Andrew Elfenbein's Byron and the Victorians deals less with Byron than with Byronism and its influence on some Victorian writers. Two of the authors and their specific works considered are obvious - Emily Bronte and Wuthering Heights, Tennyson and Maud - but the treatment is far from obvious. For Elfenbein is concerned to show how access to the Romantic poet was mediated for Victorian writers by institutions of cultural production and how these institutions helped construct a "Byron" against which they defined themselves. The treatment of Thomas Carlyle and Sartor Resartus is less convincing because Elfenbein pits the "peasant" Carlyle against the aristocrat Bryon, who is said to represent everything that stood in the way of a man with Carlyle's background from succeeding as a writer, so that Sartor is seen as a polemical appropriation and redirection of the modes of authorship dominant in the early 1830s. The treatment in the last chapter of Edward Bulwer Lytton, Benjamin Disraeli, and Oscar Wilde in light of Byron's homosexuality is a marvelous psychological essay. This is a very readable book that can be recommended to anyone interested in the intricate ways that one literary figure influences another. I only regret that the book does not deal with Robert Browning, whose relationship to Byron and Byronism is perhaps more curious and intriguing than that of any of the authors that it examines. Of lesser interest is James Soderholm's Fantasy, Forgery, and the Byron Legend, a title that suggests more titillations than it offers. Although there are references to Jean Baudrillard and Michel Foucault, this is basically a rather old-fashioned study in literary biography and reputation. Soderholm examines Byron's relations with five women - Elizabeth Pigot, Caroline Lamb, Annabella Milbanke, Teresa Guiccioli, and Marguerite Blessington - and how they and their seductions or seductibility figure in the making of the Byron legend. The book makes pleasant reading, but it does not present much new information regarding ways of understanding the Byron legend.
Shelley: Poet and Legislator of the World, edited by Betty T. Bennett and Stuart Curran, is a collection of essays that grew out of an international conference held in 1992 to commemorate the bicentennial of the poet's birth. Focusing mainly on Shelley as a social and political thinker, the essays deal with the poet's cultural role and the influences on his conceptualization of it, his political interests, his becoming an international symbol of resistance to tyranny, and his vision of the future. There is not a dull entry in the book, although I wish that several of them could have been expanded. Among the authors are such well-known Romanticists as Donald Reiman, Tilottama Rajan, and Marilyn Butler.
Keats and History, a collection of essays edited by Nicholas Roe that also places the poet in a social and political context, pretty much beats a dead horse. The myth of Keats's unworldliness, which these essays attempt to refute, has by and large disappeared. Jerome McGann's essay on Keats and the historical method (1979), the forum on Keats and politics that appeared in SiR (1986), and books by Marjorie Levinson (1988) and Daniel Watkins (1989) have dispelled all notions of Keats's poetry as purely aesthetic, totally removed from mundane concerns. That said, there are nevertheless several essays that repay reading, especially John Barnard's on Charles Cowden Clarke's commonplace book. On the other hand, several of the writers strive too hard to be au courant and as a result produce essays that can most kindly be described as fanciful, such as one claiming that four cases of banknote forgery in December 1818 led Keats to reflect on the "fictional" value of paper money and prompted the pattern of surrogation in The Fall of Hyperion.
Romantic Women Writers: Voices and Countervoices, edited by Paula R. Feldman and Theresa M. Kelley, is a collection of essays on imaginative writing by British women during the Romantic era. There are informative pieces on Maria Edgeworth, Anna Laetitia Barbauld, Felicia Hemans, Lady Morgan, and Mary Robinson. The most intriguing is Isobel Armstrong's "The Gush of the Feminine," which focuses mainly on Barbauld and declares that Romantic women's poetry should be considered in isolation from the male Romantic tradition. Read for its analysis of late-eighteenth-century economic and philosophical understandings of representation, the law, and the senses, women's poetry is not, she claims, the "gush of the feminine" but a poetry of intricacy and self-consciousness. Susan Wolfson's essay, "Gendering the Soul," which follows Armstrong's, argues, on the other hand, that women's poetry must be compared with men's in order to understand the gendered implications of Romantic representations of the soul. This collection is a commendable addition to Marlon Ross's The Contours of Masculine Desire (1989).
Robert Miles's Ann Radcliffe: The Great Enchantress is in the main a defense of the Gothic novelist as a woman of her time, fully cognizant of living in an age of transition and both accepting and denying the customs of her time. She could not be the Romantic revolutionary because the cultural pressures on women at the end of the eighteenth century were too great to overcome. Her radicalism, her alien vision, is, says Miles, to be discovered in her subtext. On the surface she is always the gentlewoman; beneath the surface she is something quite other. And this tension is, Miles argues, the source of her aesthetic dynamism. The book covers a good bit of ground already traversed by others, but the author presents his material in a lively way and offers an excellent outline of Radcliffe's career in terms of the time within which she wrote her "enchanting" fiction. In her Ann Radcliffe: A Bio-Bibliography Deborah D. Rogers offers a brief biographical sketch of the elusive Radcliffe and provides some new but fairly unimportant information derived from Radcliffe's commonplace book. More important is her bibliography that runs from 1789 to 1993 and apparently notes everything written by or about the novelist during that time.
Deirdre Le Faye has re-edited R. W. Chapman's second edition (1952, his first dating from 1932) of Jane Austen's letters. This handsome third edition adds a great deal of new material and, taking advantage of the wealth of scholarship devoted to Austen appearing over the past four decades, reorders the letters into correct chronological sequence. The manuscript of each (when available) is described, its provenance given, and its previous publication cited. The annotations are as full as one could wish, and an excellent biographical index is provided. Unfortunately, all the notes are at the back of the book instead of at the bottom of the pages, where they might be far more conveniently consulted. Teran Lee Sacco has transcribed the manuscript of Austen's unfinished novel Sanditon, which is at King's College, Cambridge. Since there exists a good facsimile of the manuscript, which is itself very legible, and a good description of it by B. C. Southam, I do not understand why a transcription should have been necessary.
In her short Jane Austen and Narrative Authority, Tara Ghoshal Wallace studies the narrator in Austen's fiction so as to demonstrate how gender, language, and authority intersect. For the most part her interest centers on what used to be called the unreliable narrator. In her beautifully lucid The Pleasures of Virtue: Political Thought in the Novels of Jane Austen, Anne Crippen Ruderman resituates Austen where she used to be: as a writer within a traditional ethical system belonging more to the eighteenth than to the nineteenth century. Ruderman challenges recent scholarship that sets up Austen as a rebel and a feminist; contends that Austen was a conservative who endorsed the intrinsic rewards of moderation and dramatized how happiness and self-fulfillment can come only in acting in ways that benefit others; and holds that, far from being subversive of domestic life, the novelist sanctions marriage as a blessing and a means of greater happiness for her heroines. In contrast, Jane Austen and Discourses of Feminism, edited by Devoney Looser, is an unexceptional collection of essays that seeks to determine how Austen "can be used to examine, interrogate, and revise certain premises and practices of feminist and cultural criticism" (p. 51).
Patricia S. Gaston's Prefacing the Waverley Prefaces focuses on the prefaces to the Waverley novels, which are said to be vital to an understanding of Walter Scott's theory of historical fiction and of historiography. Through various kinds of authorial play - intrusions, disguises, manipulation of chronology, pointing up of the text as artifice - Scott is shown as the descendant of Miguel de Cervantes and Henry Fielding. Gaston's is a new and welcome way of reading Scott and she could, I believe, have strengthened her case if she had added Laurence Sterne to her genealogy and made claim for the novelist as a Romantic Ironist.
Taken by itself, the title of Alina Clej's A Genealogy of the Modern Self is misleading. For there is no genealogy: there is only a source, alluded to in the subtitle - De Quincey and intoxication. The book is, however, part of larger project that will, first, take up De Quincey's narcotic legacy in Europe (mainly in France, as I understand, and especially as mediated by Charles Baudelaire) in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and then, second, examine the ideological implications of transgressive fantasies in the works of later modernist writers. In the book at hand the author is interested in establishing De Quincey as a paradigmatic figure of modernity - that is, as a modernist avant la lettre. What in her view establishes him as a founder of modernity is his sense of inauthenticity, his anxiety concerning influence (primarily that of Wordsworth and Coleridge), and his fear that his "self" is nothing more than words. Clej shows how the imaginary games that De Quincey plays - his use of the double, of citation, of Gothic confessions - stem from his alienated subjectivity and are allowed by his use of opium and its associations with the Orient, which masks and denies the other and yet allows the subject to speak. I cannot adequately describe this brilliant book, which also deals with, inter alia, writing for the marketplace and the waning of affect. Clej has come to De Quincey through her readings of Baudelaire and the French surrealists; and looking at him through, so to speak, the wrong end of the telescope, she has managed to discover and rehistoricize an early scene of literary modernism. Clej is intimately familiar with French critics and theorists and the Frankfort School, but she does not force theoretical jargon on her reader. Her book is surely one of the most important to appear this year.
VICTORIAN POETRY AND NONFICTIONAL PROSE
David Goslee argues in his Romanticism and the Anglican Newman that one of the most prominent Victorians, John Henry Newman, was a Romantic malgre lui. Exploring the similarities and differences between Romanticism and the Newman who had not yet converted to Roman Catholicism, Goslee takes some of the crucial topoi of Romanticism and demonstrates how these are manifested in the Newman prior to 1845. In effect, he holds that the Anglican Newman was "modern," a person participating in the advanced movement of thought of his own time, while the Roman Newman belonged philosophically and theologically to an older era. The author evinces a deep knowledge of Newman's vast writings as well as of English Romanticism and German metaphysical philosophy. He writes lucidly, even when dealing with current literary theory. The book is not only an important contribution to Newman studies but also a helpful study in the history of ideas and the rhetoric of religion.
Volume five of the Oxford Poetical Works of Robert Browning is devoted to Men and Women. Edited by Ian Jack and a newcomer to the edition, Robert Inglesfield, it continues at the same high level of the earlier volumes. J. P. Phelan's selection of poems by Clough meets the high standard of the other editions in the Longman Annotated Texts series, although, surprisingly, it omits The Bothie both in whole and in part. In one of the few books of formalist criticism issued in the past year, Robert Browning's Rondures Brave, Michael Bright studies the circular conclusion of some sixty of Browning's poems. Analyzing how repetition of the introduction of the poem in its conclusion serves to emphasize, advance, or reverse the original statement, Bright maintains, not totally convincingly, that the device offers a key to unlocking the meaning of the poem. The book has no bibliography, an index only to the Browning poems cited, and notes referring to critical studies published no later than 1985.
Matthew Rowlinson's Tennyson's Fixations, a formalist study of a very different kind, is concerned with forms of topographical allegory in Tennyson's early verse and in psychoanalytic theory with the aim of showing how their deployment leads to incoherencies in narrative order. In brief, his project, which is both deconstructive and psychoanalytical, is "the production of a Tennysonian Freud" and "the production of a Freudian Tennyson" (p. 23). The book makes for difficult reading, although it is by no means impenetrable, even when treating the dread Jacques Lacan, and it is helpful in explaining some of the leading themes of Tennyson's early poetry and, for all I know, of Freudian theory. Jennifer Ann Wagner's A Moment's Monument interestingly considers the development of the sonnet from Wordsworth to Frost in terms of a revisionary poetic that the form of the sonnet tropes. Discovering that the power of the sonnet resides in the trope of synecdoche, Wordsworth shaped the visionary sonnet, later subjected to critique by Keats, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and Gerard Manley Hopkins.
Helen Vendler's The Breaking of Style originated in her Richard Ellmann Memorial Lectures given at Emory University in 1994. Taking Hopkins, Seamus Heaney, and Jorie Graham as her exemplars, Vendler seeks to demonstrate the essential relation between style and substance in poetry. In the case of Hopkins, our concern here, she traces the evolution of his style from its early traditional mode and in the process asks why he should adopt a radically different form. Her answer is that style is the material body of lyric poetry, and so with Hopkins she connects his "sprung rhythm" with his poetry's adoring but often furtive glances at other bodies, human and divine. It is his rhythmic mimesis of danger, difference, and the shock of the beautiful. Without his remaking of the body of style, she argues, the reader would not know of such things as his response to the dangerous world of male beauty "with that mimetic accuracy - one not only of visual representation but of structural and rhythmic enactment - which is the virtue, the fundamental ethics, of art" (p. 40). There is perhaps no better critic than Vendler who can tell us so well how poems are made.
The Vulgarization of Art is the third of Linda Dowling's fine studies of late nineteenth-century British culture. This time her subject is the Aesthetic Movement, which she wisely dates from the 1860s rather than traditionally from the 1880s. She argues that at the heart of a utopian "aesthetic democracy" envisioned by John Ruskin and William Morris and discernible in Walter Pater and Wilde there lies an aesthetic sensibility originating with the third Earl of Shaftesbury. This sensibility was, however, unrecognized as such, and it led to the paradox of a democratic ideal containing a lingering trace of an older aristocratic order wholly at variance with newer ideas of equality. It is this paradox that exerts such heavy pressure on Wilde the author of The Soul of Man under Socialism, where the man who in The Critic as Artist would withdraw from politics and history so as to protect art from the ugliness of mass society becomes the spokesman for social and political engagement. Dowling has done a marvelous job of explaining tensions in the works of Ruskin, Morris, Pater, and Wilde that readers have found so disturbing.
Laura Marcus's Auto/biographical Discourses: Theory, Criticism, Practice is an impressive study of autobiography as a genre and as an organizing concept in nineteenth- and twentieth-century thought. Beginning with nineteenth-century biographical discourses, Marcus shows that nineteenth-century writers on the subject are generally less troubled by definitional questions than twentieth-century critics are, although autobiography tends with both to appear as an ideal form that often bears little or no relation to individual autobiographies. But her major interest lies in showing how the older critical view that autobiography is a subcategory of history writing has now been replaced by the insistence that it is a specifically literary form and that this demand that it be considered a literary genre has its roots in disciplinary conflicts of the past and present. The first part of the book explores various nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century approaches to autobiography and ends with a look at the tradition of autobiographical criticism arising out of the work of Wilhelm Dilthey, Georg Misch, and Georges Gusdorf, in which autobiographies are employed for support of developmental histories of human consciousness. The second part deals with autobiographical theory, criticism, and writing of the past few decades, moving to feminist discussions in which the autobiographical enters into the critical act and ending with the perceived hybridity of the form as now widely celebrated for its powerfully transgressive property. Scholarly, and beautifully written, this is one of the most important books of the year.
Although not on the same philosophical and theoretical level as Marcus's book, Clinton Machann's The Genre of Autobiography in Victorian Literature is nonetheless a modest, rather old-fashioned study of Victorian autobiography that could prove a valuable introduction for students seeking guidance in the subject. Arguing against poststrtucturalist critiques of the concept of the self, Machann holds that autobiography is referential, is a historically determined genre, and that it does not belong, as some theorists suggest, to the genre of fiction. Machann analyzes eleven autobiographies by considering them intertextually and uncovers their structural similarities. Linda Ruth Williams skirts the edges of autobiography in her Critical Desire, which discusses how (Freudian) psychoanalysis and literature intersect. The nineteenth-century texts that she highlights are Margaret Oliphant's Autobiography, compared with Freud's Wolf Man case; Gothic narratives and Christina Rossetti's lyrics, read in light of the psychoanalytic theory of the death drive; and Jude the Obscure, regarded as a model of a text apparently resistant to psychoanalysis.
Praeterita, edited by A. O. J. Cockshut, is the first volume of the Whitehead Edition of John Ruskin. Although portions originally appeared in Fors Clavigera, publication as a whole occurred in parts over a period from 1885 to 1889. Unlike Cook and Wedderburn's edition, which revises Ruskin's original text, Cockshut's "edition" prints the first edition, including misprints, and does not collate variants from Fors Clavigera or the parts. The annotations are generally satisfactory but the introduction is too brief to be helpful. Shamefully, there is no index to these autobiographical essays replete with names of persons and places. The Grove Diaries, carefully edited by Desmond Hawkins, contains the diaries of several members of the Grove family of Ferne House, near Shaftesbury, over the period from 1809 to 1925. The most interesting to literary scholars are those of Harriet Grove, who apparently had a passionate love affair with Shelley, and Agnes Grove, a friend of Hardy's. Memoir of a Victorian Woman is the radically pruned, previously unpublished memoir of Louise Creighton, wife of Mandell Creighton, the historian best known as the Bishop of London. Its chief interest lies in her record of the persons she encountered as her husband rose in academic and ecclesiastical preferment, but more than half these people are not to be found in the scandalously inadequate index. The memoirs of Fanny Kemble and her daughter Fan concerning their residences on a plantation in coastal Georgia are printed together for the first time in Principles and Privilege: Two Women's Lives on a Georgia Plantation. Dana D. Nelson's introduction to the photographic facsimiles of the texts was not carefully proofread and contains a number of startling errors, such as the statement that the Civil War began "when war was declared on April 12, 1862" (p. xvi).
Ongoing prominent editions of letters by Victorian authors continue apace in the cases of Thomas and Jane Welsh Carlyle, Charles Dickens, and George Gissing. The three volumes of the Carlyles' letters cover the period from July 1847 through the end of 1849 and deal mainly with the Irish famine and Ireland in general, the 1848-49 Continental revolutions, and the fiasco of the Squire forgeries of Cromwell papers that Thomas Carlyle accepted as genuine. The Dickens letters of 1856-58 chiefly concern work on Little Dorrit, the dissolution of the novelist's marriage, and the stress of editing the last issues of Household Words before converting it into All the Year Round. The Gissing letters of 1897-99 are probably the best and happiest he ever wrote, for they include those written to the one genuine love of his life, the Frenchwoman who became his bigamous wife. The Letters of George Henry Lewes consists of 442 of the 1,221 known letters by "Mr. George Eliot" and supplements those previously published.
Roger C. Lewis's Thomas James Wise and the Trial Book Fallacy is an addendum to the work of John Carter and Graham Pollard, who first exposed the Wise forgeries. Lewis convincingly demonstrates that the so-called trial book, which the authors supposedly had run off prior to official publication, was a fake promoted by Wise and H. Buxton Forman for personal gain. Not forgeries, the trial books were usually genuine proofsheets corrected by the author that were bound and marketed as rare, true first editions. Lewis shows how the fictional trial book has continued to confuse and falsify the history of publication of such important nineteenth-century texts as In Memoriam.
David Morse's High Victorian Culture pursues a cultural-studies approach to the Victorian world of, roughly, 1837 to 1877, to show it as a product of representation and ideological construction. There is a trenchant analysis of the idea of "England" and the Saxon myth, which was mainly a Scottish fabrication, and there are excellent examinations of the transformation of eighteenth-century Gothicism into nineteenth-century realism and of contributions by Newman, F. D. Maurice, Tennyson, and Anthony Trollope to the preservation of the Anglican tradition. There are many acute observations throughout. But the sad fact is that this otherwise promising book is a mess. There are misprints on almost every page, frequent grammatical solecisms, misspellings, illogical constructions, errors in dates, misquotations, names of authors and fictional characters garbled, misrepresentations of authors' careers, and other mistakes. Apparently the book was not proofread nor its facts checked for accuracy. I do not recall ever having seen so faulty a book issued by a reputable press.
In her Making a Social Body: British Cultural Formation, 1830-1864 Mary Poovey is interested in the conditions that laid the groundwork for British mass culture between 1830 and 1864, when culture was not completely dominated by representation. Considering the transformation of various "domains" - that is, the drawing of new boundaries and the creation of new conceptual entities - she traces the evolution of the representation of the population as an aggregate or social body. Among these "domains" involving the clash of rationalities are modern abstractions resulting from the imposition of a conceptual grid allowing every phenomenon to be compared and measured by the same yardstick, with special attention to the following: the New Poor Law of 1834; medicine and ethnology, particularly as the metaphor of contagion was used by James Phillips Kay to exclude the racialized Irish from the labor market; medical science and evangelical theology, with reference to prostitution, a fit subject of study for the former but not for the latter; government growth involving the conflict between laissez-faire and government aid where poverty was concerned; and gender, as investigated in Edwin Chadwick's Sanitary Report of 1842, Coningsby, Mary Barton, and Our Mutual Friend. As an examination of epistemological changes, the imposition of new rationalities upon older ones, Poovey's is excellent in uncovering the faultlines lying at the heart of both literary texts and those dealing with social reform in first half of the Victorian era.
VICTORIAN FICTION AND DRAMA
Elaine Hadley's Melodramatic Tactics: Theatricalized Dissent in the English Marketplace, 1800-1885 is also a book about cultural formation. Its title is, however, misleading. For it is not a study of melodrama in the conventional sense nor is it about Dissent as it is usually understood. Instead, Hadley studies the "melodramatic mode," which is never clearly defined but in its earliest phase in the nineteenth century seems to mean something like vivid conflict leading to a happy ending that affirms the values of the patriarchal family and the monopolizing tendencies of the market. This aspect of the mode is probed in the Old Price riots at Covent Garden in 1809 and the stage melodramas there enacted, and in resistance to the New Poor Law Amendment of 1834, especially as reflected in Oliver Twist. As the century progresses, the mode is said to address the position of women, betokened in the public utterances of Caroline Norton concerning the divorce laws. In the century's final decades George Meredith's Diana of the Crossways is shown to be dissociated from melodramatic expectations, and the patriarchal family becomes a problematic notion. In Hadley's summation "the melodramatic mode is merely one more artifact of market culture, a tattered bourgeois commodity" (p. 225). Strongly influenced by Foucault and neo-Marxism, Melodramatic Tactics aspires to greater scope than it perhaps achieves.
The ambitious scope of Anne McClintock's Imperial Leather is partially suggested by her subtitle, Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Colonial Conquest. The aim of the book is to explore "female and racial fetishism, cross-dressing and S/M, colonial paranoia, the erasure of domestic dirt, the invention of anachronistic space, panoptical time, and so on" - the "so on" including race and class - in aid of the argument "that psychoanalysis cannot be imposed ahistorically on the colonial conquest." In sum, the author calls for "a mutual engagement that would comprise both a decolonizing of psychoanalysis and a psychoanalyzing of colonialism" (pp. 73-4). The focus of her analysis is on several well-known late-Victorian texts and some South African works published mainly in the 1970s and '80s. I am not sure that she tells us very much new about the diaries of A. J. Munby and his secret (domestic servant) wife, nor do I see how their relationship is clearly tied to "the colonial conquest." I also do not find much new in her examinations of works by Rider Haggard and Olive Schreiner. What is interesting, nonetheless, is her showing of the intersection of gender, race, and class in the shaping of the British empire. Imperial Leather is not an easy book to read, chiefly because of its choppiness. With many, many sections in each chapter, it jumps from one subject to another as it seeks to hem in British imperialism by a circle of damning facts seen in the light of cultural studies, psychoanalysis, feminism, Marxism, and postcolonialism. By no means an example of disinterested criticism, it ends with a polemic on such subjects as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and American "military gangsterism" of the 1980s culminating in "the cataclysmic war in the Persian Gulf" (p. 392).
Christopher Lane addresses some similar concerns in his The Ruling Passion. He too wants to condemn the British empire and the longing memory of it in present-day Britain. His examination, however, is carried on in light of the relation of masculinity, homosexual desire, and imperialism as reflected in prose fictions of the turn of the century. Lane holds that a rhetoric emerged at the end of the nineteenth century that sought to contain colonialism, masculine identification, and homosexual desire, and he seeks to decode it in Rudyard Kipling, Haggard, Wilde, Henry James, and others writing later, ending with the much overpraised (by him and others) The Swimming-Pool Library. Joseph Bristow's Effeminate England: Homoerotic Writing after 1885 examines how after Wilde effeminacy became the main stigma attached to male homosexuality and how effeminate behavior was manifested in homosexual writing. Although touching on Wilde and J. A. Symonds, a large part of the book looks at post-Victorian writers and ends with a consideration of AIDS and "the grief at the centre of The Swimming-Pool Library [that] emerges only through its terrifying absence" (p. 172). Both Bristow's and especially Lane's books display a sensitivity about the nature of masculinity and same-sex desire not often found in other studies of gender, such as Gender Roles and Sexuality in Victorian Literature, edited by Christopher Parker, a fairly unenlightening collection of essays seemingly brought together chiefly for the purpose of publishing a book. To provide an element of novelty there are "chapters" (as they are called) on "Gender Roles and Sexuality in R. D. Blackmore's Other Novels" and "Gender, Race and Sexuality in Bram Stoker's Other Novels." Belying the title of the book is an essay on "Male Perceptions of 'Wholesome' Literature" of the first decade-and-a-half of the twentieth century. The collection is saved by a judicious and informative essay on "Domestic Ideology and Its Industrial Enemies" by Brian Maidment. Another collection dealing with gender roles, "Criminals, Idiots, Women, and Minors" edited by Susan Hamilton, contains essays by women drawn from the mainstream Victorian press touching on the "Woman Question" and dealing with marriage, women's work, and (to borrow the titles of two of Oliphant's essays) "the condition of women" and "the grievances of women" in general.
A subtle and engaging study of gender is James Eli Adams's Dandies and Desert Saints: Styles of Victorian Manhood, which examines Victorian masculine identity as a rhetorical construction. Looking mainly at Carlyle, Tennyson, Charles Kingsley, Newman, and Pater, Adams is less interested in sexuality than in gender, particularly in the ways in which these writers represent intellectual vocations as affirmations of masculine identity. This is all done with freshness and tact and avoids the grossness of studies that view Victorian manhood solely in terms of patriarchy or phallogocentrism. In Our Vampires, Ourselves Nina Auerbach wittily and succinctly traces two hundred years of English and American cultural history by chronicling the changing fashions of vampirism. In the process of showing how each age creates vampires in the image it wants and deserves, she also reclaims the ground of the traditionally male horror story for feminist territory. Let us hope that Auerbach has forestalled all future studies of Dracula and vampires.
Ginger S. Frost's Promises Broken is an informative work that, drawing its evidence from 875 cases, examines breach-of-promise lawsuits to present a picture of inequities of class and gender in Victorian England. Among other fascinating facts, the book describes how fictional breach-of-promise suits, such as those in Pickwick Papers and Gilbert and Sullivan's Trial by Jury, influenced popular notions far more than did the actual cases. This is a rich and rewarding book revealing facts of social history hitherto lain hidden. Another work of careful scholarship is Sally Mitchell's The New Girl, which studies the development of the concept of girlhood as a separate stage of female existence, with its own values and standards, from its inception about 1880 to its full flowering by 1915. Mitchell has read widely in what must have been a tedious body of material and synthesized it to produce a choice example of cultural history. In still another conscientious work of social history, Banishing the Beast, Lucy Bland explores the relations between men and women in Britain in the late nineteenth century. Asking what were the key issues concerning sexuality debated by the early feminists, she responds by focusing on sexual ethics, contraceptive practices, eugenics, lesbianism, and much more. Bland shows the way in which various feminist campaigns were often contradictory and worked at cross purposes, and she concludes that this complex of contradictions is still discernible among feminists today in such questions as pornography and censorship. Investigating a wide range of Victorian texts, Deborah Epstein Nord's Walking the Victorian Streets: Women, Representation, and the City locates and examines the representation of two types of walkers - the male urban chronicler who strolls carefree, observing but unseen, and the female walker conscious of herself as both observer and observed and often functioning as the flaneur's "other" associated with the symbolic stresses and diseases of city life.
The essays in Telling Histories: Narrativizing History, Historicizing Literature, edited by Susana Onega, explore British historigraphic metafiction as written by Margaret Drabble, Salman Rushdie, and others. By way of getting to the subject, four essays focus on the appropriation of history in imaginative literature from Scott to the end of the nineteenth century, dealing specifically with Mrs. Humphry Ward's Robert Elsmere, Irish ballad history and Young Ireland, and novels about the Indian Mutiny of 1857. These essays are too brief to be persuasive and the one on Robert Elsmere has almost nothing to do with history. Deirdre David's Rule Britannia: Women, Empire, and Victorian Writing, on the other hand, is directly concerned with history and its reflection in literature. Looking at the roles of women as they were linked to the cause of the British empire, the book compares Macaulay's parliamentary oratory with Emily Eden's letters from India; explores how Dickens in The Old Curiosity Shop and Dombey and Son points up the moral task of women in civilizing the savage; argues that the ideological contradictions in Jane Eyre concerning the empire are owing to the protagonist's governess sensibility; reads a legal case tried in Calcutta in the 1880s concerning a charge of improper relations between a woman missionary and an Indian as an instance of the perceived danger to the imperial enterprise by assertive women and relates this to Tennyson's imperial poems and Haggard's King Solomon's Mines and She; and finally looks at Emilia Gould in Joseph Conrad's Nostromo as a figure summing up Victorian ideas about differences in gender as employed in the writing about British rule. Rule Britannia is a fine study of Victorian women as both makers and critics of empire. Of lesser importance (because dealing with women writers little known) but nonetheless an engaging study of women and empire, Susan Morgan's Place Matters focuses on geography and argues that different places in Southeast Asia manifested different imperial presences with their own imperial rhetorics, within which travel writings by women (Anna Forbes, Margaret Brooke, Emily Innes, and others) reflect a gendered geography.
In other books dealing with East and West, Christopher GoGwilt's The Invention of the West examines ramifications of the term "the West," which at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth replaced "Europe" in cultural discourse, by focusing on Conrad's fiction. GoGwilt maintains that Conrad's work reveals a double mapping of Europe and Empire and thereby exposes a new European idea of the West, one that distorts the shattering of universal cultural traditions by insisting on the continuity of "Western" history. Barry Milligan's Pleasures and Pains considers how opium and the Orient figure in nineteenth-century English culture. Treating Coleridge, De Quincey, Wilkie Collins's The Moonstone, and the portrayal of opium dens in East London by journalists and writers of popular fiction, Milligan attempts to show how the narcotic was the medium for ambivalent responses to the Orient.
Harish Trivedi's Colonial Transactions: English Literature and India was first published in 1993, but since it was not available outside India till the current printing, it is worthy of notice here. Trivedi takes issue with the colonial and postcolonial industry by talking about colonial discourse not in terms of responses or attitudes on the part of Western writers concerning imperialism but of native Indian reaction to English literature. He presents colonial India in terms of its response to some monuments of English literature (Shakespeare, Edward FitzGerald's Rubaiyat, T. S. Eliot), looks at examples of how India is represented in English literature (Byron, T. S. Eliot, et al.), and finally explores some contexts in which English literature may be read in present-day India by both students and writers. This informative and often-humorous book will perhaps be more than slightly shocking to adherents of political correctness.
Lynette Felber's Gender and Genre in Novels without End considers the English roman fleuve, the multivolume sequence novel, as a distinct genre. The length, the temporal and spatial gaps between volumes, the multiplicity of characters, the open-endedness - these defining characteristics of this type of extended fiction also define it as ecriture feminine. As subjects of her study she chooses Trollope's Palliser novels as the prototype. It is not clear to me why the Palliser group is any more prototypical than the Barsetshire novels, nor am I fully convinced that there is a "convergence of innovative and feminist narrative features" pointing toward "a significant convergence of gender and genre in the Pallisers" (p. 74).
John Sutherland's Victorian Fiction: Writers, Publishers, Readers is both witty and scholarly. Asking here some of the questions that he has engaged before, Sutherland considers the social, cultural, and commercial facts influencing the production of Victorian fiction. He deals with factual errors in William Makepeace Thackeray's novels and with why the author did not correct them; ponders why the impossibilities and improbabilities in The Woman in White by and large escape the reader's notice; treats Dickens's dilemma when Charles Reade vilified friends in a novel serialized in All the Year Round; surveys the rise and fall of the novel in monthly parts; examines the role of Bulwer Lytton in George Eliot's writing of Middlemarch; investigates the working materials of The Way We Live Now to show that Trollope was a more careful and carefully prepared writer than he claimed in his Autobiography; points out Henry James's influence on Mrs. Ward's Miss Bretherton; and finally turns to the largely unknown and invisible 3,500 or so authors of the approximately 50,000 novels published during the Victorian period. Sutherland does all this stylishly and entertainingly.
Literature in the Marketplace, essays by American, British, and Australian writers edited by John O. Jordan and Robert L. Patten, also deals with nineteenth-century publishing and reading practices in Britain. Anyone interested in the British book trade, the kinds of audiences who read the books, and the effects of reading will find this a very useful collection. Lee Erickson's The Economy of Literary Form takes up similar concerns about the effects of the industrialization of publishing on English literature from 1800 to 1850. The book begins with a survey of market conditions for poetry, the essay, and the novel, and is followed by chapters on Wordsworth, Carlyle, and Austen showing how the conditions of the literary marketplace tended to shape their thinking and concerns for their pocketbooks. In general, Erickson's remarks on changing conditions in the literary economy make interesting reading even if they are not strikingly new. He is very good in explaining why the publication of poetry declined in the 1830s and why the essay and the novel became prominent forms. A number of factual errors tend, however, to diminish one's confidence in his analysis. For example, the original Idylls of the King of 1859 was composed not of "five romances" (p. 40) but four idylls, nor was Tennyson's "'St. Simeon Stylites' (1832) the first dramatic monologue" (p. 43), but was begun in 1833 (after, for instance, "Ulysses") and was not published till 1842. Further, Erickson's claim that the dramatic monologue was developed "as a form symbolic" of the predicament of poets who became isolated from their reading public "as poetry became financially marginal for publishers" (p. 19) is, when worked out in the readings of several monologues by Tennyson and Browning, not persuasive.
Tim Marshall's Murdering to Dissect offers a fascinating historicist account of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, especially the third edition (1831), showing how the scandals of grave-robbing had a profound effect on it and other literature of the time. Teresa Ransom's Fanny Trollope: A Remarkable Life is a sympathetic and enlightening biography of an underrated literary personality. Charles W. Snyder writes a political biography of Bulwer Lytton in his Liberty and Morality. Although the novelist was not much of a politician and his brief tenure as colonial secretary a near-disaster, this study is a thorough investigation of the topic and worthy of notice because of its reliability and the clarity of its prose style. In Pastoral in the Work of Charles Dickens Derek Johnson studies the Victorian cult of nature inspired by Wordsworth and concludes that for Dickens the love of nature leading to love of man was a constant throughout his career. One of its ramifications was his idealization of his sister-in-law Mary as nature's helpmate. But in his last years, Johnson claims, his idealization of the female was mitigated by the separation from his wife and his affair with Ellen Ternan. Johnson wishes that all along Dickens had put his faith in political solutions to social problems instead of relying on "pastoral." Micael M. Clarke's Thackeray and Women looks at the novelist's views of women as reflected in his life and personal writings and in his fiction (mainly Vanity Fair and Henry Esmond) and seeks to establish a link between his novels and the Victorian women's movement by situating them in juxtaposition to the life and writings of Caroline Norton. The conclusion is, unsurprisingly, that "Thackeray's novels reflect a trend in Victorian culture toward an increasing consciousness of gender issues and an acceptance of feminist perspectives" (p. 192).
Unless they have visited Haworth, most lovers of the Brontes' novels probably do not know that the sisters as well as their brother Branwell were fairly talented artists. Unlike Branwell, however, they worked not in oils but in watercolor, pencil, and pen and ink, Charlotte being the most accomplished of the three. Christine Alexander and Jane Sellars have located, catalogued, described, and reproduced all known paintings by the Brontes - 180 by Charlotte, 131 by Branwell, 29 by Emily, 37 by Anne, and 22 of dubious attribution. This is all superbly done. The Art of the Brontes is a handsome book of meticulous scholarship. The same can be said of the scholarship of volume one of The Letters of Charlotte Bronte with a Selection of Letters by Family Friends edited by Margaret Smith and covering the years 1829 to 1847. The collection contains all known letters to or from Bronte, which are supplemented by contemporary material illuminating her references. An introductory, fascinating section on "The History of the Letters" traces in detail the fate of Bronte's letters from the time of first publication of some of them by Elizabeth Gaskell to the present. Much of the correspondence is here printed or correctly dated for the first time, and its transcription and annotation are alike impeccable. Charlotte Bronte's High Life in Verdopolis: A Story from the Glass Town Saga, a romance written when she was seventeen, has been carefully edited by Christine Alexander from the manuscript in the British Library and illustrated with drawings by Bronte herself. Charlotte Bronte has been well served this year.
June Sturrock treats Charlotte M. Yonge's relation to the Victorian women's movement in "Heaven and Home." Contending that Yonge, a deeply religious women, was especially sensitive to the issue of gender because of the connections that she perceived between the construction of gender and religion, Sturrock addresses three stages in the writer's feminist campaign: her focus on education in the '40s and '50s as exemplified in The Daisy Chain, her concern with limited possibilities of employment in the '50s and '60s as illustrated in The Clever Woman of the Family, and her emphasis on legal and political freedom after 1867 as represented in The Three Brides. This unpretentious little monograph should be read by anyone interested in domestic fiction and its relation to the Victorian woman question.
In The Novels of Mrs. Oliphant: A Subversive View of Traditional Themes, Margarete Rubik attempts a reevaluation of Oliphant's fiction by showing how the novelist displayed an alien vision when dealing with Victorian conventions and mores. Rubik does her best, but one is never persuaded that this political conservative was anything more than what she admitted herself (in her autobiography) to be: a novelist who wrote for money in order to support her family. In Trollope and Victorian Moral Philosophy Jane Nardin examines nine novels by Trollope to show that he wrote them in part to uphold the inherited Judeo-Christian moral tradition under attack by Utilitarians, Intuitionists, and Idealists who believed that they could devise a more rational moral philosophy. She does this very convincingly. Most of the fifteen essays in Wilkie Collins to the Forefront, edited by Nelson Smith and R. C. Terry, stem from a Collins centennial conference in 1989. A third have already been published in the Dickens Studies Annual, the most valuable being those by Christopher Kent on probability and reality in Collins's fiction and John Sutherland on the origins of sensation fiction. Worthy of additional notice are essays by Sue Lonoff on Collins's friendship with Edward Lear and Ira Nadel on Collins's illustrators.
In The Decline of the Goddess: Nature, Culture, and Women in Thomas Hardy's Fiction Shirley A. Stave explores the conflict between agrarianism and industrialism in Hardy's novels in terms of the archetypes of the earth goddess and the sky god. The unfallen world is said to be pagan, natural, nonpatriarchal, and mythic while the world that threatens it is cultural, Christian, patriarchal, and historical. Tracing the collision between these two worlds in five Wessex novels, she shows how the former so intrudes and dominates that in Jude the Obscure Hardy presents a desacralized and demythicized world left to the ravages of culture and anarchy. Much of what Stave has to say is not new; but she says it well and clearly discerns the continuing attraction of Hardy's fiction, which is situated "between the mythic and the historical, the ideal and the real, one foot in never-never land, the other solidly in England" (p. 22). A slighter book is Ellen Lew Sprechman's Seeing Women as Men: Role Reversal in the Novels of Thomas Hardy, which examines five of Hardy's major novels to outline the novelist's feminist vision. According to Sprechman, Bathsheba Everdene, Sue Bridehead, et al. are heroes who challenge Victorian notions of what women should and could be.
Six chapters of Pater's unfinished novel Gaston de Latour were published in magazines from 1888 to 1889 and posthumously in book form in 1896, when six chapters were withheld. Gerald Monsman, our most eminent Paterian, has now edited Gaston de Latour: The Revised Text, which includes the six unpublished chapters. Working from holographs at Brasenose College, Oxford, the Houghton Library, and the Berg Collection, Monsman has produced a wholly new reading text of Gaston, which is set in France just following the Reformation and deals with the conflicts between Protestants and Catholics and the emergence of the modern mind. The previously withheld chapters evince Pater's reaction to Wilde's writings much as the famous Conclusion to The Renaissance did.
Almayer's Folly: A Story of an Eastern River is the second volume of The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Joseph Conrad to be published. Edited by Floyd Eugene Eddleman and David Leon Higdon and with a long, instructive introduction by Ian Watt, the novel, which suffered many unauthorized interventions, is here presented as Conrad would have liked it in 1895. John W. Griffith's Joseph Conrad and the Anthropological Dilemma: "Bewildered Traveller" studies Almayer's Folly and other early works by Conrad in relation to nineteenth-century anthropology and travel literature as well as to current anthropological theory, and it places Conrad's fiction about encounters with "primitive" peoples at the heart of the urgent late-Victorian concern with the fate of Western civilization, whether its future was progress or degeneration. It is an edifying complement to GoGwilt's Invention of the West noticed earlier.
James A. Epstein maintains in his Radical Expression: Political Language, Ritual, and Symbol in England, 1790-1850 that the dominant idiom in which radicals of 1790 to 1850 expressed their demands was not that of revolution but of popular constitutionalism. He subtly explores the rhetoric of, among other things, the courtroom in which radicals were put on trial, rationalist utterances, and popular gatherings, always insisting on the "situatedness" of political expression. In Class Fictions Pamela Fox studies the degree to which class shame plays a part in working-class literature (mostly post-1900), as she seeks to uncover anxieties underlying representations of class consciousness. Something of Fox's style may be suggested by quoting part of the title of a subsection in her introduction: "De/Re-fusing the Reproduction-Resistance Circuit."
With a tribal nod toward literary study as an agent of change, Joseph W. Childers argues in Novel Possibilities: Fiction and the Formation of Early Victorian Culture that Victorian fiction not only mirrored political and social problems but also informed texts such as those generated by parliamentary debates and the social reform movement. In essence, Childers's claim is that, as much as various nonfictional and competing discourses about social problems, novels like Coningsby, Mary Barton, and Alton Locke helped forward social reform by demonstrating and interpreting the need for it. In her study of the realist novel, All Is True: The Claims and Strategies of Realist Fiction, Lilian R. Furst aims to show how referentiality and textuality in nineteenth-century realist fiction interact in the creation of place and the fashioning of the text. To do this she deals only with third-person narratives, two of which are English-language novels, Middlemarch and The Bostonians. Her method is reader-oriented as she treats the implied acts of reading and reacting to realist fiction, and she demonstrates how by means of voice, perspective, framing, and the slippage from metonymy to metaphor the authors were able to convince their readers that they were experiencing life and not mere illusion. The Bostonians is also a text investigated by Claire Kahane in her Passions of the Voice, but for a far different purpose. Offering a psychopoetics of hysteria, Kahane explores the hysterical voice in a variety of Victorian and early-twentieth-century texts, including Freud's "Fragment of an Analysis of Hysteria," Shirley, Story of an African Farm, and Florence Nightingale's Cassandra. In them, she argues, because of the subversion of gender definitions in the Victorian period the woman's voice is anxious, with the result that the narrative voice loses control of the story and struggles to find a form that will stabilize the narrative. Although the book is steeped in psychoanalytic theory, it nevertheless makes for pleasing study. Evelyne Ender's Sexing the Mind, an analysis of the relations between identity and sexuality, is, on the other hand, somewhat harder going. It too deals with fictions of hysteria, both French and English (The Bostonians again), and their attempts to transcend nineteenth-century models of masculinity and femininity. Ender believes that these fictions ask that the reader become an analyst and, while sympathetically listening to and, to some degree, participating in the hysteric's drama, unveil the secrets that she treasures, although never effecting a cure.
Ivan Turgenev and Britain, edited by Patrick Waddington, and Dostoevskii and Britain, edited by W.J. Leatherbarrow, two books in the series Anglo/Russian Affinities, are collections of essays dealing with the two Russian novelists' reception in Britain, Turgenev's mainly in the nineteenth century, Dostoevskii's mainly in the twentieth. Waddington has an excellent long introduction tracing Turgenev's reputation, Leatherbarrow a much briefer and less informative one on Dostoevskii's. R. C. Terry's Robert Louis Stevenson: Interviews and Recollections portrays the writer through the eyes of fifty persons - family, friends, and acquaintances. Nancy Ann Watanabe discusses Yeats's twenty-four major plays in Beloved Image to show how the poet's imagery was drawn from the cinema, photography, Japanese theater, French poetry, and other sources. Yeatsians will find most of the material fairly familiar. In Shaw's People, Stanley Weintraub, scholarly and entertaining as always, looks at George Bernard Shaw through the lens of various figures, including some Victorians such as the queen and Wilde.
The essays on science fiction in Anticipations, edited by David Seed, are full of interest even for someone, like myself, with no liking for the genre. Edward James's survey of English-language publications of science fiction from 1801 to 1900 shows Americans to have been the more prolific practitioners of this class of fiction than Britishers. In both cases the dramatic increase in publication came in the last two decades, especially in the 1890s. By tracing the predecessors of twentieth-century sci-fi, James further shows that the term "science fiction" suggests a factitious unity of what is in fact a collection of disparate subgenres - lost race tales, utopias, psychic voyages, etc. - with different literary histories and characteristics. Patrick Parinder's essay on the recurring "Thames Valley catastrophe," Brian Nellist's on predictive fiction, and Simon Dentith's on utopian writing are likewise informative about science fiction in Britain in the nineteenth century.
Diana Donald's authoritative The Age of Caricature: Satirical Prints in the Reign of George III reveals a new understanding of the role of cartoons in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The author shows, with the help of voluminous illustrations, how caricatures can be viewed as, among other things, political propaganda and instruments in the construction of gender and definition of class. Robert L. Patten's second and concluding volume of his definitive George Cruikshank's Life, Times, and Art deals with the second half of the artist's career, from 1835 to 1878. Of special interest is Patten's detailing of the ins and outs of Cruikshank's friendships, such as those with Dickens and Ruskin. The biography is not, however, merely a narrative of the artist's later years; for Patten is very much concerned to place Cruikshank in the Victorian cultural situation, and in so doing he illuminates the role of the artist as he fashions himself and is refashioned by his patrons and his critics. Susan P. Casteras's James Smetham: Artist, Author, Pre-Raphaelite Associate is the first book-length study of this artist and poet befriended by Rossetti, Ruskin, and other prominent figures of the Victorian art world but who nevertheless remained unsuccessful. Smetham was prolific as both a painter and a writer, and his many notebooks, journals, and letters evidence his compulsion (he suffered from mental illness) to set down on paper his thoughts about religion (he was a devout Methodist), literature, and art. Casteras's book, in which the generous illustrations exhibit some similarity in Smetham's style to both Samuel Palmer and the Pre-Raphaelites, is a sensitive study not only of this underappreciated melancholy artist but also of the vagaries of the Victorian art market and the patronage system.
Victorian Heroines by Kimberley Reynolds and Nicola Humble focuses on representations of femininity in nineteenth-century art and literature. It is a curious book in that the two authors seem not fully aware of what the other is doing, and certainly no copy-editor has gone over it carefully. For example, the introduction promises a full discussion of Sarah Grand's The Beth Book in the final chapter, whereas in fact the author and her book are but briefly mentioned there; and the beginning of chapter 3 repeats a good bit of the introduction. The authors propose to show that the Victorian "heroine" was neither an angel in the house nor a fallen woman, a "dyad" that they claim uncompromisingly separated good women and sex. Authors and artists challenged this "dyadic mentality" and offered solutions for rejoining the divided feminine self. With more than a little innocence about the large body of critical writings on the subject, the authors claim that theirs is a novel presentation of the alien vision (as E. D. H. Johnson called it four decades ago) of Victorian art and literature. The twelve black-and-white illustrations are so badly reproduced as to be largely indecipherable.
In Sisters Michael Cohen studies sisters in nineteenth-century British paintings and novels to show how the depiction of sisters changes from the time of Sir Joshua Reynolds to the time of Rossetti and George Eliot. He sees sisterhood as a synecdoche for all female relationships and the rescue of one sister by another as the subject of a large number of nineteenth-century works. Austen and Susan Ferrier highlighted sexual differences and likenesses among sisters, and Scott pointed the way to female rescues in The Heart of Midlothian. In Dickens and in Collins one of the sisters is as morally pure as the author can depict her, and the other is an utterly fallen woman who eventually is redeemed by her virtuous sibling. To the extent that they emphasize these sexual differences, the two novelists are retrograde in that their contemporaries in both painting and prose fiction seek to erase these differences, by making the sisters as much alike in appearance as possible, in fact making them twins. In Gaskell, George Eliot, and Meredith sisterly rescue is often featured and male characters are often transformed into figurative sisters. Cohen's joint attention to both paintings, which are handsomely reproduced, and novels is often illuminating.
Joseph A. Kestner's Masculinities in Victorian Painting may be regarded as a complementary study to Cohen's although it is more ambitious. Kestner investigates the construction of masculinity in Victorian culture by examining its representation in various paintings mainly of the later nineteenth century. He looks at pictures of the classical hero, the gallant medieval knight, the challenged paterfamilias, the valiant contemporary soldier, and the male nude and concludes that, to no small degree, maleness and ideas of gender in general were learned from artistic representations. This thoughtful book, profusely illustrated in sharply defined black-and-white plates, will repay attention by students of both gender studies and Victorian art.
Susan Casteras has edited, along with Colleen Denney, another admirable book, The Grosvenor Gallery: A Palace of Art in Victorian England, a group of essays considering the place of this notorious exhibition site in the London world of art in the late nineteenth century. In another volume, of even greater importance, The Grosvenor Gallery Exhibitions: Change and Continuity in the Victorian Art World, Christopher Newall provides a history of this most important private art gallery in Victorian England, a listing of all the artists and their works exhibited there, and an index by year of the exhibitors. For anyone interested in the Victorian art world there could hardly be a more welcome book. Both Casteras and Denney's collection, plentifully illustrated, and Newhall's book allow us to see just how prominent the gallery was as the chief venue of the Aesthetic Movement.
Volume 2 of Victorian Yellowbacks and Paperbacks, 1849-1905, is a bibliography, prepared by Chester W. Topp, of virtually all the books in paper issued by the London publishers Ward and Lock between 1854 and 1905. The two volumes of the Location Register of English Literary Manuscripts and Letters: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, edited by a team headed by David C. Sutton, are not adequately described by the title. Unlike the earlier and more extensive Index of English Literary Manuscripts, the Location Register lists manuscripts only in repositories in Britain. This means that such great American manuscript libraries as the Berg, Beinecke, Houghton, and Huntington are omitted, and thus the usefulness of the work is limited.
Julian Moynahan in his Anglo-Irish: The Literary Imagination in a Hyphenated Culture argues, contra Edward Said, that after the Act of Union (1800) the Anglo-Irish, cut off from their English roots, became fully Irish, though their cultural contribution remained distinctively Anglo-Irish till well into the twentieth century. Beginning with Maria Edgeworth and William Carleton, for the importance of both of whom he makes somewhat extravagant claims, and ending with Elizabeth Bowen and Samuel Beckett, Moynahan demonstrates that the Anglo-Irish writer focuses on the fortunes of the rural landowners in isolated estate houses, is fascinated with the Irish peasantry, investigates the folkways and oral traditions of everyday life in Ireland, and cultivates the English language differently from (and often more vividly than) other British writers.
In the collection of his essays entitled Heathcliff and the Great Hunger: Studies in Irish Culture, Terry Eagleton holds that the British have long used Ireland as the depository of their fantasies. It is the conceit of his first chapter that Heathcliff is an abandoned Irish child of the hungry 'forties who speaks the incomprehensible Irish language and grows up to be a threat to the orderly Thrushcross Grange. In Eagleton's fancy he stands in the English mind as the emblem of Ireland, the force of nature that England cannot tolerate and so must sublimate or destroy. Like Ireland, Heathcliff is, in other words, a fantasy of the English mind that is discernible in the Irish fictions known as Protestant Gothic - Charles Maturin's Melmoth, Sheridan Le Fanu's Uncle Silas, and Stoker's Dracula - narratives of ruined families, ruined houses, and unquiet graves. By and large overlooking Irish poetry, Eagleton concentrates on the novel to show, in Marxist fashion, why Irish literature is not realistic, realism demanding a culture with a material base, something that Ireland did not have in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Ireland and Irish literature, even that of Jonathan Swift, Yeats, and James Joyce, are, he insists, victims of British culture.
In Writing the Irish Famine Christopher Morash addresses the question of how the Irish famine of the 1840s is represented in nineteenth-century literature. He examines literary texts by Carleton, Trollope, and others, relates them to sermons, histories, and economic discourses, and concludes that the enormity of the event precludes representation. Richard Pine's The Thief of Reason: Oscar Wilde and Modern England plays up Wilde's Irish background and argues that the writer was an outsider not only because of his homosexuality but also because of the special nature of his Irish background (his family being both Protestants and supporters of Irish nationalism). Along with Pine's study, Rediscovering Oscar Wilde, essays by various hands edited by C. George Sandulescu stemming from a conference organized by the Princess Grace Irish Library of Monaco, does not focus on Wilde's sexuality but looks at his family and career. Another book issuing from the same venue is a reconstructive critical edition of the first production (1895) of The Importance of Being Earnest. Edited by Joseph Donohue and Ruth Berggren, it is handsomely annotated and illustrated from contemporary sources.
In general, the past year (mid-May 1995 to mid-May 1996) has been a profitable one for nineteenth-century literary study. Studies of the Romantics have focused more on individual authors than have those of the Victorians. Studies of Victorian poets and canonical nonfictional prose writers have been few, as writers have concentrated on novels and prose tracts; which is perhaps a way of saying that cultural studies has dominated the study of the Victorian era to an extent not yet known to the Romantic.
Adams, James Eli. Dandies and Desert Saints: Styles of Victorian Manhood. Ithaca and London: Cornell Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xi + 249. $39.95 or [pounds]30.95 cloth. ISBN 0-8014-3017-8. $15.95 or [pounds]12.50 paper. ISBN 0-8014-8208-9.
Alexander, Christine, and Jane Sellars. The Art of the Brontes. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xxvi + 484. $79.95 cloth. ISBN 0-521-43248-0. $34.95 paper. ISBN 0-521-43841-1.
Alpers, Paul. What Is Pastoral? Chicago and London: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1996. Pp. xiii + 429. $34.95. ISBN 0-226-01516-5.
Arnold, Matthew. Matthew Arnold: A Critical Edition of the Major Works. Ed. Miriam Allot and Robert H. Super. Oxford Authors. New York and Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1986; rprt. 1992. Pp. xxxii + 216. $19.95 or [pounds]11.95. ISBN 0-19-281376-5.
Ashton, Rosemary. The Life of Samuel Taylor Coleridge: A Critical Biography. Cambridge MA and Oxford: Blackwell, 1996, Pp. vii + 480. $29.95. ISBN 0-631-18746-4.
Askwith, Betty. The Bensons: A Victorian Family. London: E. F. Benson Society, 1995. Pp. 142. [pounds]5.95. ISBN 1-898659-00-1.
Auerbach, Nina. Our Vampires, Ourselves. Chicago and London: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1995. Pp. vii + 231. $22.00. ISBN 0-226-03201-9.
Austen, Jane. Jane Austen's Letters, 3d edn. Ed. Deirdre Le Faye. Oxford and New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xxviii + 643. $49.95. ISBN 0-19-811764-7.
Bainbridge, Simon. Napoleon and English Romanticism. Cambridge and London: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xiv + 259. $49.95 or [pounds]35.00. ISBN 0-521-47336-5.
Beer, John, ed. Questioning Romanticism. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xiv + 319. $48.50 cloth. ISBN 0-8018-5053-3. $17.95 paper. ISBN 0-8018-5052-5.
Bennett, Betty T., and Stuart Curran, eds. Shelley: Poet and Legislator of the World. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1996. Pp. xix + 310. $45.00 cloth. ISBN 0-8018-5175-0. $15.95 paper. ISBN 0-8018-5176-9.
Bland, Lucy. Banishing the Beast: Sexuality and the Early Feminists. New York: New Press, 1995. Pp. xx + 411. $25.00. ISBN 0-56584-307-X.
Born, Daniel. The Birth of Liberal Guilt in the English Novel: Charles Dickens to H. G. Wells. Chapel Hill and London: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1995. ix + 213. $39.95 cloth. ISBN 0-8078-2241-8. $16.95 paper. ISBN 0-8078-4544-2.
Bright, Michael. Robert Browning's Rondures Brave. Athens: Ohio Univ. Press, 1996. Pp. xxiv + 255. $34.95. ISBN 0-8214-1125-X.
Bristow, Joseph. Effeminate England: Homoerotic Writing after 1885. Between Men - Between Women: Lesbian and Gay Studies. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. x + 193. $39.50 cloth. ISBN 0-231-10348-4. $15.00 paper. ISBN 0-231-10349-2.
Bristow, Joseph, ed. Victorian Women Poets: Emily Bronte, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Christina Rossetti. New Casebooks. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995. Pp. ix + 256. $39.95. ISBN 0-312-12735-9.
Bronte, Charlotte. Charlotte Bronte's High Life in Verdopolis: A Story from the Glass Town Saga. Ed. Christine Alexander. Bury St. Edmunds, England: British Library, 1995. Pp. xxiii + 103. $24.95. ISBN 0-7123-0408-8.
Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre: Complete, Authoritative Text with Biographical and Historical Contexts, Critical History, and Essays from Five Contemporary Critical Perspectives. Case Studies in Contemporary Criticism. Ed. Beth Newman. Boston and New York: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1996. Pp. vii + 646. $35.00 cloth. ISBN 0-312-12795-2. $6.50 paper. ISBN 0-312-09545-7.
Bronte, Charlotte. The Letters of Charlotte Bronte with a Selection of Letters by Family Friends. Ed. Margaret Smith. Vol. 1, 1829-1847. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995. Pp. xvii + 627. $90.00. ISBN 0-19-818597-9.
Bronte, Emily Jane. The Complete Poems of Emily Jane Bronte. Ed. C. W. Hatfield. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1941; rprt. 1995. Pp. xxvi + 262. $39.50 cloth. ISBN 0-231-01222-5. $14.00 paper. ISBN 0-231-10347-6.
Brooks, Peter. The Melodramatic Imagination. Balzac, Henry James, Melodrama, and the Mode of Excess. New Haven and London: Yale Univ. Press, 1976; 1995 paper. Pp. xx + 235. $15.00 paper. ISBN 0-300-06553-1.
Browning, Robert. The Poetical Works of Robert Browning, Vol. 5: Men and Women. Ed. Ian Jack and Robert Inglesfield. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995. Pp. lvi + 499. $120.00. ISBN 0-19-812790-1.
Burney, Frances. The Witlings. Early English Women Writers, 1660-1800. Ed. Clayton J. Delery. East Lansing MI: Colleagues Press. Pp. ix + 161. $25.00. ISBN 0-93719-155-8.
Carlyle, Thomas, and Jane Welsh Carlyle. The Collected Letters of Thomas and Jane Welsh Carlyle. Vol. 22: July 1847-March 1848. Ed. Clyde de L. Ryals and Kenneth J. Fielding. Duke-Edinburgh edn. Durham NC and London: Duke Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xxxiii + 282. $45.00. ISBN 0-8223-0240-3.
Carlyle, Thomas, and Jane Welsh Carlyle. The Collected Letters of Thomas and Jane Welsh Carlyle. Vol. 23: April 1848-March 1849. Ed. Clyde de L. Ryals and Kenneth J. Fielding. Duke-Edinburgh edn. Durham NC and London: Duke Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. 265. $45.00. ISBN 0-8223-0240-3.
Carlyle, Thomas, and Jane Welsh Carlyle. The Collected Letters of Thomas and Jane Welsh Carlyle. Vol. 24: April 1849-December 1849. Ed. Clyde de L. Ryals and Kenneth J. Fielding. Duke-Edinburgh edn. Durham NC and London: Duke Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. 354. $45.00. ISBN 0-8223-0240-3.
Casteras, Susan P. James Smetham: Artist, Author, Pre-Raphaelite Associate. Brookfield VT: Scolar Press, 1995. Pp. xi + 193. $59.95. ISBN 0-85928-103-6.
Casteras, Susan P., and Colleen Denney, eds. The Grosvenor Gallery: A Palace of Art in Victorian England. New Haven and London: Yale Univ. Press, 1996. Pp. xiv + 210. $50.00. ISBN 0-300-06752-6.
Castle, Terry. The Apparitional Lesbian: Female Homosexuality and Modern Culture. Gender and Culture Series. Ed. Carolyn G. Heilbrun and Nancy K. Miller. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1993; 1995 paper. Pp. x + 307. $16.50 paper. ISBN 0-231-07652-5.
Childers, Joseph W. Novel Possibilities: Fiction and the Formation of Early Victorian Culture. New Cultural Studies. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. Pp. x + 218. $32.95. ISBN 0-8122-3324-7.
Children's Literature 23. Annual of The Modern Language Association Division on Children's Literature and The Children's Literature Association. New Haven and London: Yale Univ. Press, 1995. $45.00 cloth. ISBN 0-300-6235-4. $16.00 paper. ISBN 0-300-06236-2.
Christensen, Jerome. Lord Byron's Strength: Romantic Writing and Commercial Society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1993; 1995 paper. Pp. xxv + 426. $15.95 paper. ISBN 0-8018 - 4355-3.
Clarke, Micael M. Thackeray and Women. Dekalb: Northern Illinois Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xiii + 235. $30.00. ISBN 0-87580-197-8.
Clej, Alina. A Genealogy of the Modern Self: Thomas De Quincey and the Intoxication of Writing. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xxiv + 348. $39.50. ISBN 0-8047-2393-1.
Clough, Arthur Hugh. Clough: Selected Poems. Ed. J. P. Phelan. Longman Annotated Texts. London and New York: Longman, 1995. Pp. xii + 289. $53.95 cloth. ISBN 0-582-05113-4. $22.95 paper. ISBN 0-582-05112-6.
Cohen, Michael. Sisters: Relation and Rescue in Nineteenth-Century British Novels and Paintings. Cranbury NJ: Associated Univ. Presses, 1995. Pp. 187. $60.00. ISBN 0-8386-3555-5.
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. The Collected Works of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, volume 11: Shorter Works and Fragments, in 2 vols. Ed. H. J. Jackson and J. R. de J. Jackson. Bollingen Series 75. London: Routledge; Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xliv + 824 (vol. 1) and xv + 937 (vol. 2). $150 for set. ISBN 0-691-09878-6.
Collins, Philip. Dickens and Crime. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994; 3d ed. Pp. xvi + 371. $18.95 paper. ISBN 0-312-12327-2.
Conrad, Joseph. Almayer's Folly: A Story of an Eastern River. Ed. Floyd Eugene Eddleman and David Leon Higdon. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994. Pp. lxiv + 260. $69.95. ISBN 0-521-43205-7.
Conrad, Joseph. The Heart of Darkness. Ed. Cedric Watts. North Clarendon VT: Charles E. Tuttle; London: J. M. Dent, 1995. Pp. xl + 134. $4.95 paper. ISBN 0460-87292-3.
Creighton, Louise. Memoir of a Victorian Woman: Reflections of Louise Creighton, 1850-1936. Ed. James Thayne Covert. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana Univ. Press, 1994. Pp. xvii + 187. $29.95 or [pounds]25.00. ISBN 0-253-31469-0.
David, Deirdre. Rule Britannia: Women, Empire, and Victorian Writing. Ithaca and London: Cornell Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xiv + 234. $37.50 or [pounds]29.50 cloth. ISBN 0-8014-3170-0. $15.95 or [pounds]12.50 paper. ISBN 0-8014-8277-1.
De Quincey, Thomas. Confessions of an English Opium-Eater. Mineola NY: Dover Thrift Editions, 1995. Pp. vii + 70. $1.00 paper. ISBN 0-486-28742-4.
Dever, Carolyn, and Marvin J. Taylor, eds. Reading Wilde: Querying Spaces. New York: New York Univ. Press for Fales Library, 1995. Pp. iv + 92. $9.50. ISBN 0-8147-2601-1.
Dickens, Charles. The Confessions of Charles Dickens: A Very Factual Fiction. Ed. Alan S. Watts. New York and Bern: Peter Lang, 1991. Pp. 179. $37.95. ISBN 0-8204-1533-2.
Dickens, Charles. "Great Expectations": Complete, Authoritative Text with Biographical and Historical Contexts, Critical History, and Essays from Five Contemporary Critical Perspectives. Ed. Janice Carlisle. Boston and New York: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1996. Pp. xii + 641. $35.00 cloth. ISBN 0-312-12797-9. $7.50 paper. ISBN 0-312-08082-4.
Dickens, Charles. The Letters of Charles Dickens, Vol. 8: 1856-1858. Ed. Graham Storey and Kathleen Tillotson. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995. Pp. xxvii + 807. $150.00. ISBN 0-19-812662-X.
Dictionary of Literary Biography: British Short-Fiction Writers, 1800-1880. DLB Vol. 159. Detroit MI: Gale Research, 1996. Pp. xv + 402. $128.00. ISBN 0-8103-9354-9.
Dictionary of Literary Biography: The House of Scribner, 1846-1904. DLB Documentary Series, Vol. 13. Detroit MI: Gale Research, 1996. Pp. viii + 442. $128.00. ISBN 0-8103-5706-2.
Donald, Diana. The Age of Caricature: Satirical Prints in the Reign of George III. New Haven and London: Yale Univ. Press, 1996. Pp. iv + 248. $60.00. ISBN 0-300-06605-8.
Dowling, Linda. The Vulgarizaton of Art: The Victorians and Aesthetic Democracy. Victorian Literature and Culture. Charlottesville and London: Univ. of Virginia Press, 1996. Pp. xviii + 133. $32.50. ISBN 0-8139-1634-8.
Eagleton, Terry. Heathcliff and the Great Hunger: Studies in Irish Culture. London and New York: Verso, 1995; distributed by Routledge. Pp. xii + 355. $27.95. ISBN 1-85984-932-6.
Elfenbein, Andrew. Byron and the Victorians. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xi + 285. $54.95. ISBN 0-521-45452-2.
Ender, Evelyne. Sexing the Mind: Nineteenth-Century Fictions of Hysteria. Ithaca and London: Cornell Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xi + 307. $42.50 or [pounds]32.95 cloth. ISBN 0-8014-2826-2. $17.95 or [pounds]14.00 paper. ISBN 0-8014-8083-3.
Epstein, James A. Radical Expression: Political Language, Ritual, and Symbol in England, 1790-1850. Oxford and New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1994. Pp. x + 233. $45.00 or [pounds]30.00. ISBN 0-19-506-5506.
Erickson, Lee. The Economy of Literary Form: English Literature and the Industrialization of Publishing, 1800-1850. Baltimore and London:Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1996. Pp. xii + 219. $35.00. ISBN 0-8018-5145-9.
Fay, Elizabeth A. Becoming Wordsworthian: A Performative Aesthetics. Amherst: Univ. of Massachusetts Press, 1995. Pp. viii + 279. $35.00. ISBN 0-87023-960-0.
Felber, Lynette. Gender and Genre in Novels without End: The British Roman-Fleuve. Gainesville and Tallahassee FL: Univ. of Florida Press, 1995. Pp. xiii + 206. $39.95. ISBN 0-8130-1402-6.
Feldman, Paula R., and Theresa M. Kelley, eds. Romantic Women Writers: Voices and Countervoices. Hanover and London: Univ. Press of New England, 1995. Pp. ix + 326. 49.95 cloth. ISBN 0-87451-711-7. $19.95 paper. ISBN 0-87451-724-9.
Fox, Pamela. Class Fictions: Shame and Resistance in the British Working-Class Novel, 1890-1945. Durham NC and London: Duke Univ. Press, 1994. Pp. viii + 241. $45.95 cloth. ISBN 0-8223-1533-5. $15.95 paper. ISBN 0-8223-1542-4.
Frost, Ginger S. Promises Broken: Courtship, Class, and Gender in Victorian England. Charlottesville VA and London: Univ. Press of Virginia, 1995. Pp. xii + 241. $35.00. ISBN 0-8139-1610-0.
Fry, Paul H. A Defense of Poetry: Reflections on the Occasion of Writing. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. 255. $45.00 cloth. ISBN 0-8047-2452-0. $16.95 paper. ISBN 0-8047-2531-4.
Furst, Lilian R. All Is True: The Claims and Strategies of Realist Fiction. Durham and London: Duke Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xi + 218. $46.95 cloth. ISBN 0-8223-1632-3. $16.95 paper. ISBN 0-8223-1646-3.
Gaston, Patricia S. Prefacing the Waverley Prefaces: A Reading of Sir Walter Scott's Prefaces to the Waverley Novels. New York and Bern: Peter Lang, 1991. Pp. 181. $35.95. ISBN 0-8204-1611-8.
Gibson, James. Thomas Hardy: A Literary Life. Literary Lives. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996. Pp. xi + 206. $29.95. ISBN 0-312-15945-5.
Gissing, George. The Collected Letters of George Gissing, Volume Seven, 1897-1899. Ed. Paul F. Mattheisen, Arthur C. Young, and Pierre Coustillas. Athens: Ohio Univ. Press-Swallow Press, 1995. Pp. lx + 438. $70.00. ISBN 0-8214-1123-3.
Gittings, Robert, and Jo Manton. Claire Clairmont and the Shelleys, 1789-1879. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1995. Pp xi + 281. $21.00 paper. ISBN 0-19-818351-8.
GoGwilt, Christopher. The Invention of the West: Joseph Conrad and the Double-Mapping of Europe and Empire. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xiii + 280. $35.00. ISBN 0-8047-2401-6.
Goldthwaite, John. The Natural History of Make-Believe: A Guide to the Principal Works of Britain, Europe, and America. New York and Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1996. Pp. ix + 386. $30.00. ISBN 0-19-503806-1.
Goslee, David. Romanticism and the Anglican Newman. Athens: Ohio Univ. Press, 1996. Pp. xiv + 357. $44.95. ISBN 0-8214-1126-8.
Gray, John. Silverpoints, 1893; Spiritual Poems, 1896. Decadents, Symbolists, Anti-Decadents: Poetry of the 1890s. Ed. R. K. R. Thornton and Ian Small. Oxford and New York: Woodstock Books, 1995. Pp. clix. $48.00. ISBN 0-85477-144-2.
Griffith, John W. Joseph Conrad and the Anthropological Dilemma: "Bewildered Traveller." Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995. Pp. x + 248. $49.95. ISBN 0-19-818-300-3.
Grossmith, George and Weedon. The Diary of a Nobody. Intro. Kate Flint. Oxford and New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xxiii + 136. $7.95 paper. ISBN 0-19-282404-X.
Hadley, Elaine. Melodramatic Tactics: Theatricalized Dissent in the English Marketplace, 1800-1885. Stanford CA: Stanford Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. 303. $37.50. ISBN 0-8047-2403-2.
Hamilton, Susan. "Criminals, Idiots, Women, and Minors": Victorian Writing by Women on Women. Orchard Park NY and Ontario: Broadview Press, 1995. Pp. 307. $15.95 paper. ISBN 1-55111-056-3.
Harding, Anthony John. The Reception of Myth in English Romanticism. Columbia and London: Univ. of Missouri Press, 1995. Pp. xiv + 289. $39.95. ISBN 0-8262-1007-4.
Hardison, O. B.,Jr., and Leon Golden, eds. Horace for Students of Literature: The 'Ars Poetica' and Its Tradition. Gainesville and Tallahassee: Univ. Press of Florida, 1995. Pp. xviii + 395. $49.95. ISBN 0-8130-1354-2.
Hardy, Thomas. Hardy's Selected Poems. Mineola NY: Dover Thrift Editions, 1995. Pp. vi +74. $1.00 paper. ISBN 0-486-28753-X.
Hardy, Thomas. The Return of the Native. Ed. Amanda Hodgson. North Clarendon VT: Charles E. Tuttle; London: J. M. Dent, 1995. Pp. xxxii +428. $4.95 paper. ISBN 0460-87531-0.
Hardy, Thomas. Wessex Poems, 1898. Decadents, Symbolists, Anti-Decadents: Poetry of the 1890s. Ed. R. K. R. Thornton and Ian Small. Oxford and New York: Woodstock Books, 1995. Pp. xix + 228. $55.00. ISBN 1-85477-145-0.
Hare, Augustus. Peculiar People: The Story of My Life. Ed. Anita Miller and James Papp. Chicago: Academy Chicago Publishers, 1995. Pp. xvii + 303. $26.95. ISBN 0-89733-388-8.
Harrison, Gary. Wordsworth's Vagrant Muse: Poetry, Poverty, and Power. Detroit MI: Wayne State Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. 237. $34.95. ISBN 0-8143-2481-9.
Harvey, John. Men in Black. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1995. Pp. 280. $29.95. ISBN 0-226-31879-6.
Haverkamp, Anselm. Leaves of Mourning: Holderlin's Late Work - With an Essay on Keats and Melancholy. Intersections: Philosophy and Critical Theory. Albany: State Univ. of New York, 1996. Pp. xii + 162. $14.95 paper. ISBN 0-7914-2740-4.
Hawkins, Desmond, ed. The Grove Diaries: The Rise and Fall of an English Family, 1809-1925. Stanbridge, Wimborne, Dorset: Dovecote Press; Cranbury NJ: Univ. of Delaware Press, 1995. Pp. 375. $37.50. ISBN 0-87413-600-8.
Hopkins, Gerard Manley. "God's Grandeur" and Other Poems. Mineola NY: Dover Thrift Editions, 1995. Pp. x + 54. $1.00 paper. ISBN 0-486-28729-7.
Houfe, Simon. The Work of Charles Samuel Keene. Brookfield VT: Scolar Press, 1995. Pp. xi + 113. $76.95. ISBN 0-85967-986-1.
Housman, A. E. A Shropshire Lad, 1896. Decadents, Symbolists, Anti-Decadents: Poetry of the 1890s. Ed. R. K. R. Thornton and Ian Small. Oxford and New York: Woodstock Books, 1995. Pp. xvi + 96. $43.00. ISBN 0-85477-147-7.
Image, Selwyn, and Herbert Horne. "Poems and Carols" with "Diversi colores." Decadents, Symbolists, Anti-Decadents: Poetry of the 1890s. Oxford and New York: Woodstock Books, 1995. Pp. x + 94. $43.00. ISBN 1-85477-148-5.
The John Clare Society Journal 14 (July 1995). "Clare and Ecology." Peterborough, England: John Clare Society, 1995. Pp. 96. Free for members; [pounds]3.50 separately. ISBN 0-9522541-15.
Johnson, Derek. Pastoral in the Work of Charles Dickens. European University Studies. Series XIV: Anglo-Saxon Language and Literature. Bern and New York: Peter Lang, 1995. Pp. 290. $45.80. ISBN 3-261-04518-3.
Jones, Mark. The "Lucy Poems": A Case Study in Literary Knowledge. Toronto, Buffalo, and London: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1995. Pp. xv + 337. $55.00 or [pounds]35.75. ISBN 0-8020-0434-2.
Jordan, John O., and Robert L. Patten, eds. Literature in the Marketplace: Nineteenth-Century British Publishing and Reading Practices. New York and Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995. Pp xiv + 338. $59.95 or [pounds]40.00. ISBN 0-521-45247-3.
Kahane, Claire. Passions of the Voice: Hysteria, Narrative, and the Figure of the Speaking Woman, 1850-1915. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xviii + 196. $45.00 cloth. ISBN 0-8018-5161-0. $14.95 paper. ISBN 0-8017-5162-9.
Keats, John. Selected Poems. Ed. Nicholas Roe. North Clarendon VT: Charles E. Tuttle; London: J. M. Dent, 1995. Pp. xxxii + 374. $6.95 or [pounds]6.99 paper. ISBN 0-460-87549-3.
Kemble, Frances A., and Frances A. Butler Leigh. Principles and Privilege: Two Women's Lives on a Georgia Plantation. Intro. Dana D. Nelson. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press-Ann Arbor Paperbacks, 1995. Pp. lxii + 577. $42.50 cloth. ISBN 0-472-09522-6. $18.95 paper. ISBN 0-472-06522-X.
Kestner, Joseph A. Masculinities in Victorian Painting. Brookfield VT: Scolar Press, 1995. Pp. xv + 316. $69.95. ISBN 1-85928-108-7.
Kooistra, Lorraine Janzen. The Artist as Critic: Bitextuality in Fin-de-Siecle Illustrated Books. Brookfield VT: Scolar Press, 1995. Pp. xiv + 304. $66.95. ISBN 0-85928-159-1.
Lamb, Lady Caroline. Glenarvon. North Clarendon VT: Charles E. Tuttle; London: J. M. Dent, 1995. Pp. xxxviii + 409. $7.50 or [pounds]6.99 paper. ISBN 0-460-87468-3.
Lane, Christopher. The Ruling Passion: British Colonial Allegory and the Paradox of Homosexual Desire. Durham and London: Duke Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xiii + 326. $49.95 cloth. ISBN 0-8223-1677-3. $16.95 paper. ISBN 0-8223-1689-7.
Langan, Celeste. Romantic Vagrancy: Wordsworth and the Simulation of Freedom. Cambridge Studies in Romanticism. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. x + 304. $54.95. ISBN 0-521-47507-4.
Leatherbarrow, W. J., ed. Dostoevskii and Britain. Anglo/Russian Affinities. Oxford and Providence RI: Berg, 1995. Pp. ix + 310. $45.95 or [pounds]44.95. ISBN 0-85496-784-2.
Lewes, George Henry. The Letters of George Henry Lewes, Vol. 1. Ed. William Baker. English Literary Studies Monograph Series 64. Victoria BC: Univ. of Victoria, 1995. Pp. 295. $32.50 paper. ISBN 0-920604-80-3.
Lewes, George Henry. The Letters of George Henry Lewes, Vol. 2. Ed. William Baker. English Literary Studies Monograph Series 65. Victoria BC: Univ. of Victoria, 1995. Pp. 280. $32.50 paper. ISBN 0-920604-82-X.
Lewis, Roger C. Thomas James Wise and the Trial Book Fallacy. Brookfield VT: Scolar Press, 1995. Pp. xxiii + 244. $76.95. ISBN 1-85928-036-6.
Lloyd, Rosemary. Closer and Closer Apart: Jealousy in Literature. Ithaca and London: Cornell Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xv + 205. $32.50. ISBN 0-8014-3151-4.
Looser, Devoney, ed. Jane Austen and Discourses of Feminism. New York and London: St. Martin's Press, 1995. Pp. x + 197. $39.95. ISBN 0-312-12367-1.
Machann, Clinton. The Genre of Autobiography in Victorian Literature. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press, 1994. Pp. 191. $37.50 or [pounds]27.00. ISBN 0-472-10565-5.
MacLiammoir, Micheal. The Importance of Being Oscar. Dublin: Dolmen Press, 1963; Gerrards Cross, England: Colin Smythe, 1995. Pp. 71. [pounds]3.99 paper. ISBN 0-85105-510-9.
Manos, Nikki Lee, and Meri-Jane Rochelson, eds. Transforming Genres: New Approaches to British Fiction of the 1890s. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994. Pp. xv + 272. $39.95. ISBN 0-312-12154-7.
Marcus, Laura. Auto/biographical Discourses: Theory, Criticism, Practice. Manchester and New York: Manchester Univ. Press; distributed in U.S. and Canada by St. Martin's Press, 1995. Pp. 322. $79.95. ISBN 0-7190-3642-9.
Marshall, Tim. Murdering to Dissect: Grave-robbing, "Frankenstein," and the Anatomy Literature. Manchester and New York: Manchester Univ. Press; distributed in U.S. and Canada by St. Martin's Press, 1995. Pp. xiv + 354. $79.95 cloth. ISBN 0-7190-4542-8. $24.95 paper. ISBN 0-7190-4543-6.
Mazzeno, Laurence W. Victorian Poetry: An Annotated Bibliography. Magill Bibliographies. Metuchen NJ and London: Scarecrow Press; Pasadena CA and Englewood Cliffs NJ: Salem Press, 1995. Pp. xiii + 247. $32.50. ISBN 0-8108-3008-6.
McClintock, Anne. Imperial Leather: Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Colonial Conquest. New York and London: Routledge, 1995. Pp. xi + 449. $55.00. ISBN 0-415-90889-2. $18.95 paper. ISBN 0-415-90890-6.
Miles, Robert. Ann Radcliffe: The Great Enchantress. Manchester and New York: Manchester Univ. Press; distributed in U.S. and Canada by St. Martin's Press, 1995. Pp. 208. $49.95 cloth. ISBN 0-7190-3828-4. $19.95 paper. ISBN 0-7190-3829-4.
Miller, Andrew H. Novels behind Glass: Commodity Culture and Victorian Narrative. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1996. Pp. xi + 242. $54.95. ISBN 0-521-47133-8.
Miller, J. Hillis. Ariadne's Thread: Story Lines. New Haven and London: Yale Univ. Press, 1992; 1995 paper. Pp. xviii + 280. $37.50 cloth. ISBN 0-300-05216-2. $18.00 paper. ISBN 0-300-06309-1.
Millgate, Michael. Testamentary Acts: Browning, Tennyson, James, Hardy. New York and Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1992; 1995 paper. Pp. x + 273. $19.95 paper. ISBN 0-19-818366-6.
Milligan, Barry. Pleasures and Pains: Opium and the Orient in Nineteenth-Century British Culture. Charlottesville and London: Univ. Press of Virginia, 1995. Pp. xii + 156. $29.50. ISBN 0-8139-1571-6.
Mitchell, Sally. The New Girl: Girls' Culture in England, 1880-1915. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. ix + 258. $17.50 paper. ISBN 0-231-10247-X.
Morash, Christopher. Writing the Irish Famine. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995. Pp. 213. $45.00. ISBN 0-19-818279-1.
More, Hannah. Strictures on Female Education, 1799; Revolution and Romanticism, 1789-1832. Oxford and New York: Woodstock Books, 1995. Pp. xxvii + 327. $95.00 or [pounds]55.00. ISBN 1-85477-186-8.
Morgan, Susan. Place Matters: Gendered Geography in Victorian Women's Travel Books about Southeast Asia. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press, 1996. Pp. xi + 345. $50.00 cloth. ISBN 0-8135-2248-X. $19.95 paper. ISBN 0-8135-2249-8.
Morris, William. News from Nowhere, or an Epoch of Rest: Being Some Chapters from a Utopian Romance. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xxxii + 229. $54.95 cloth. ISBN 0-521-42007-5. $16.95 paper. ISBN 0-521-42233-7.
Morse, David. High Victorian Culture. Washington Square, New York: New York Univ. Press, 1993. Pp. viii + 553. $60.00 cloth. ISBN 0-8147-5487-2. $20.00 paper. ISBN 0-8147-5504-6.
Moynahan, Julian. Anglo-Irish: The Literary Imagination in a Hyphenated Culture. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xiii + 288. $24.95 or [pounds]19.95. ISBN 0-691-03757-4.
Murray, K. M. Elisabeth. Caught in the Web of Words: James A. H. Murray and the "Oxford English Dictionary." New Haven and London: Yale Univ. Press, 1995 (paper). Pp. xiv + 386. $16.00 paper. ISBN 0-300-06310-5.
Nardin, Jane. Trollope and Victorian Moral Philosophy. Athens: Ohio Univ. Press, 1996. Pp. viii + 172. ISBN 0-8214-1139-X. $34.95.
Newall, Christopher. The Grosvenor Gallery Exhibitions: Change and Continuity in the Victorian Art World. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. x + 185. [pounds]55.00. ISBN 0-521-464-93-5.
Newbolt, Henry. The Island Race. Decadents, Symbolists, Anti-Decadents: Poetry of the 1890s. Ed. R. K. R. Thornton and Ian Small. Oxford and New York: Woodstock Books, 1995. Pp. xxvii + 144. $48.00. ISBN 1-85477-152-3.
Newey, Vincent. Centring the Self: Subjectivity, Society, and Reading from Thomas Gray to Thomas Hardy. Brookfield VT: Scolar-Ashgate, 1995. Pp. 288. $69.95. ISBN 0-85928-151-6.
Nineteenth-Century Contexts: An Interdisciplinary Journal 19, 2 (1995). Special Issue: "Gendering Romanticisms." Langhorne PA: Gordon and Breach, 1995; distributed by International Publishers Distributor. Pp. 232. Subscription $46.00. ISBN 2-88449-229-1.
Nord, Deborah Epstein. Walking the Victorian Streets: Women, Representation, and the City. Ithaca and London: Cornell Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. 280. $39.95 or [pounds]30.95 cloth. ISBN 0-8014-3196-4. $16.95 or [pounds]12.95 paper. ISBN 0-8014-2392-9.
Norton, Caroline. Caroline Norton's Defense: English Laws for Women in the Nineteenth Century. Chicago: Academy Chicago, 1982; 1995 paper. Pp. xii + 184. $17.95 cloth. ISBN 0-915864-97-8. $8.95 paper. ISBN 0-915864-886.
O'Sullivan, Vincent. "The Houses of Sin," 1897 with "Poems," 1890. Decadents, Symbolists, Anti-Decadents: Poetry of the 1890s. Ed. R. K. R. Thornton and Ian Small. Oxford and New York: Woodstock Books, 1995. Pp xiv + 133. $49.50. ISBN 1-85477-153-1.
Onega, Susana. Telling Histories: Narrativizing History, Historicizing Literature. Amsterdam and Atlanta: Editions Rodopi, 1995. Pp. vii + 208. $40.00. ISBN 90-5183-754-2.
Opie, Amelia. "Adeline Mowbray," 1805. Poole and New York: Woodstock Books, 1995. Pp. vii + 195. $85.00. ISBN 1-85477-188-4.
Papper, E. M. Romance, Poetry, and Surgical Sleep: Literature Influences Medicine. Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1995. Pp. xii + 162. $55.00. ISBN 0-313-29405-4.
Parker, Christopher, ed. Gender Roles and Sexuality in Victorian Literature. Brookfield VT: Scolar Press, 1995. Pp. xiii + 194. $59.95. ISBN 1-85928-146-X.
Pater, Walter. Gaston de Latour: The Revised Text. Ed. Gerald Monsman. Greensboro NC: ELT Press, 1995. Pp. xlvi + 329. $40.00. ISBN 0-944318-09-6.
Patten, Robert L. George Cruikshank's Life, Times, and Art. Volume 2: 1835-1878. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press, 1996. Pp. xvii + 656. $75.00. ISBN 0-8135-1814-8.
Peckham, Morse. Romanticism and Ideology. Hanover and London: Univ. Press of New England for Wesleyan Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xii + 309. $19.95 paper. ISBN 0-8195-6285-8.
Pine, Richard. The Thief of Reason: Oscar Wilde and Modern England. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995. Pp. xii + 478. $35.00. ISBN 0-312-15813-0.
Plarr, Victor. In the Dorian Mood, 1896. Decadents, Symbolists, Anti-Decadents: Poetry of the 1890s. Ed. R. K. R. Thornton and Ian Small. Oxford and New York: Woodstock Books, 1995. Pp. xv + 127. $48.00. ISBN 1-85477-154-X.
Polhemus, Robert M. Erotic Faith: Being in Love from Jane Austen to D. H. Lawrence. Chicago and London: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1990; 1995 paper. Pp. xii + 363. $17.95 paper. ISBN 0-226-67322-7.
Poovey, Mary. Making a Social Body: British Cultural Formation, 1830-1864. Chicago and London: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1995. Pp. 216. $34.00 cloth. ISBN 0-226-67523-8. $12.95 paper. ISBN 0-226-67524-6.
Priestley, J. B., and R. L. Brett. William Hazlitt. Writers and Their Work. Plymouth, England: Northcote House, 1994. Pp. v + 69. [pounds]6.99 paper. ISBN 0-7463-0745-4.
Punter, David. The Literature of Terror: A History of Gothic Fictions from 1765 to the Present Day. Vol. 1. The Gothic Tradition. London and New York: Longman, 1996. Pp. ix + 237. $23.75. ISBN 0-582-23714-9.
Rajan, Tilottama, and David L. Clark, eds. Intersections: Nineteenth-Century Philosophy and Contemporary Theory. Margins of Literature. Albany: State Univ. of New York, 1995. Pp. vii + 386. $21.95 paper. ISBN 0-7914-2258-5.
Ransom, Teresa. Fanny Trollope: A Remarkable Life. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995. Pp. xviii + 236. $35.00. ISBN 0-312-12618-2.
Review 17 (1995). Ed. James O. Hoge. Charlottesville: Univ. Press of Virginia, 1995. Pp. xi + 336. $40.00. ISBN 0-8139-1635-6.
Reynolds, Kimberley, and Nicola Humble. Victorian Heroines: Representations of Femininity in Nineteenth-Century Literature and Art. Washington Square, New York: New York Univ. Press, 1993. Pp. x + 195. $45.00 cloth. ISBN 0-8147-7361-3. $17.95 paper. ISBN 0-8147-7362-1.
Roberts, Marie Mulvey, and Hugh Ormsby-Lennon, eds. Secret Texts: The Literature of Secret Societies. AMS Studies in Cultural History 1. New York: AMS Press, 1995. Pp. x + 349. $55.00. ISBN 0-404-64251-9.
Roe, Nicholas, ed. Keats and History. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xviii + 320. $59.95 or [pounds]37.50. ISBN 0-521-44245-1.
Rogers, Deborah D. Ann Radcliffe: A Bio-Bibliography. Bio-Bibliographies in World Literature 4. Westport CT and London: Greenwood Press, 1996. Pp. xiii + 209. $55.00. ISBN 0-313-28379-6.
Rowlinson, Matthew. Tennyson's Fixations: Psychoanalysis and the Topics of the Early Poetry. Charlottesville and London: Univ. Press of Virginia, 1994. Pp. x + 193. $35.00. ISBN 0-8139-1478-7.
Rubik, Margarete. The Novels of Mrs. Oliphant: A Subversive View of Traditional Themes. Writing About Women, Feminist Literary Studies 8. New York and Bern: Peter Lang, 1994. Pp. 343. $54.95. ISBN 0-8204-2209-6.
Ruderman, Anne Crippen. The Pleasures of Virtue: Political Thought in the Novels of Jane Austen. Lanham MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1995. Pp. ix + 202. $57.50 cloth. ISBN 0-8476-8100-9. $21.95 paper. ISBN 0-8476-8101-7.
Rudy, John G. Wordsworth and the Zen Mind: The Poetry of Self-Emptying. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press, 1996. Pp. xv + 268. $59.50 cloth. ISBN 0-7914-2903-2. $19.95 paper. ISBN 0-7914-2904-0.
Ruskin, John. Praeterita. Ed. A. O.J. Cockshut. Keele: Ryburn Publishing/Keele Univ. Press, 1994. Pp. xl + 581. [pounds]50.00 cloth. ISBN 1-85331-045-X. [pounds]20.00 paper. ISBN 1-85331-050-6.
Sacco, Teran Lee. A Transcription and Analysis of Jane Austen's Last Work, "Sanditon. "Lewiston NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1995. Pp. xiii + 181. $89.95. ISBN 0-7734-8995-9.
Sandulescu, C. George, ed. Rediscovering Oscar Wilde. Gerrards Cross, England: Colin Smythe, 1994. Pp. xvi + 464. [pounds]35.00. ISBN 0-86140-376-2.
Schwarz, Daniel R. The Transformation of the English Novel, 1890-1930: Studies in Hardy, Conrad, Joyce, Lawrence, Forster, and Woolf New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989; 1995 paper. Pp. x + 336. $17.95. ISBN 0-312-12283-7.
Seed, David, ed. Anticipations: Essays on Early Science Fiction and Its Precursors. Liverpool: Liverpool Univ. Press; Syracuse: Syracuse Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xvi + 225. $42.50 cloth. ISBN 0-8156-2632-0. $17.95 paper. ISBN 0-8156-2640-1.
Sieweke, Gabriele. Der Romancier als Historiker: Untersuchungen zum Verhaltnis von Literatur und Geschichte in der englischen Historiographie des 19. Jahrhunderts, Munsteraner Monographien zur englishchen Literatur, Vol. 16. Frankfurt, Berlin, Bern, New York, and Paris: Peter Lang, 1993. Pp. 220. DM64. ISBN 3-631-47106-8.
Smith, Charlotte. Letters of a Solitary Wanderer. Revolution and Romanticism, 1789-1834. Ed. Jonathan Wordsworth. New York: Woodstock Books, 1995. Pp. vii + 249. $85.00. ISBN 0-85477-193-0.
Smith, Grahame. Charles Dickens: A Literary Life. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996. Pp. xiv + 190. $29.92. ISBN 0-312-12919-X.
Smith, Nelson, and R. C. Terry, eds. Wilkie Collins to the Forefront: Some Reassessments. AMS Studies in Nineteenth-Century Literature and Culture 1. New York: AMS Press, 1995. Pp. xiv + 273. $55.00. ISBN 0-404-64351-5.
Snodgrass, Chris. Aubrey Beardsley, Dandy of the Grotesque. New York and Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xix + 338. $45.00. ISBN 0-19-509062-4.
Snyder, Charles W. Liberty and Morality: A Political Biography of Edward Bulwer-Lytton. Bern and New York: Peter Lang, 1995. Pp. 230. $37.95. ISBN 0-8204-2471-4.
Soderholm, James. Fantasy, Forgery, and the Byron Legend. Lexington: Univ. Press of Kentucky, 1996. Pp. xii + 195. $29.95. ISBN 0-8131-1939-1.
Southcott, Joanna. A Dispute between the Woman and the Powers of Darkness, 1802. Revolution and Romanticism, 1789-1834. Ed. Jonathan Wordsworth. New York: Woodstock Books, 1995. Pp. ix + 128. $48.00. ISBN 0-85477-194-9.
Spiegelman, Willard. Majestic Indolence: English Romantic Poetry and the Work of Art. New York and Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xii + 221. $45.00 cloth. ISBN 0-19-509356-9.
Sprechman, Ellen Lew. Seeing Women as Men: Role Reversal in the Novels of Thomas Hardy. Lanham NY and London: Univ. Press of America, 1995. Pp. xi + 137. $32.00. ISBN 0-8191-9863-3.
Stave, Shirley A. The Decline of the Goddess: Nature, Culture, and Women in Thomas Hardy's Fiction. Contributions to the Study of World Literature 63. Westport CT and London: Greenwood Press, 1995. Pp. xi + 165. $49.95. ISBN 0-313-29566-2.
Stevenson, Robert Louis, and Lloyd Osbourne. The Wrong Box. Intro. David Pascoe. Oxford and New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xxv + 152. $8.95 paper. ISBN 0-19-282426-0.
Sturrock, June. "Heaven and Home": Charlotte M. Yonge's Domestic Fiction and the Victorian Debate over Women. English Literary Studies Monograph Series 66. Victoria BC: Univ. of Victoria, 1995. Pp. 125. $10.50. ISBN 0-920604-84-6.
Sutherland, John. Victorian Fiction: Writers, Publishers, Readers. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995. Pp. x + 191. $39.95 or [pounds]35.00 cloth. ISBN 0-312-12614-X.
Sutherland, John, ed. The Oxford Book of English Love Stories. New York and Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1996. Pp. xii + 452. $25.00 cloth. ISBN 0-19-214237-2.
Sutton, David C., ed. Location Register of English Literary Manuscripts and Letters: Eighteenth and Ninteenth Centuries. Vol. 1: A-J; vol. 2: K-Z. London: British Library; Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1995. Pp. xi + 524 (vol. 1); 516 (vol. 2). $280.00 for two vol. set. ISBN 0-7123-0396-0 (vol. 1): 0-7123-0397-9 (vol. 2).
Tambling, Jeremy. Dickens, Violence, and the Modern State. London: Macmillan; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995. Pp. x + 237. $49.95. ISBN 0-333-63389-X Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-12684-0 St. Martin's.
Terry, R. C., ed. Robert Louis Stevenson: Interviews and Recollections. Iowa City: Univ. of Iowa Press, 1996. Pp. xxxi + 216. $24.95. ISBN 0-87745-512-0.
Thomas, Donald, ed. The Everyman Book of Victorian Verse: The Post-Romantics; Five Major Poets: Tennyson, Browning, Arnold, Clough, and Swinburne. North Clarendon VT: Charles E. Tuttle; London: J. M. Dent, 1995. Pp. xxxi + 284. $8.95 or [pounds]5.99 paper. ISBN 0-460-87012-2.
Thomson, June. Holmes and Watson: A Study in Friendship. London: Constable, 1995. Pp. 288. [pounds]15.99. ISBN 0-09-473680-4.
Topp, Chester W. Victorian Yellowbacks and Paperbacks, 1849-1905; Volume II: Ward and Lock. Denver: Hermitage Antiquarian Bookshop, 1995. Pp. ix + 456. $135.00. ISBN 0-9633920-1-8.
Trivedi, Harish. Colonial Transactions: English Literature and India. Manchester and New York: Manchester Univ. Press; distributed in U.S. and Canada by St. Martin's Press, 1995. Pp. xiv + 225. $69.95 cloth. ISBN 0-7190-4605-X. $24.95 paper. ISBN 0-7190-4606-8.
Trollope, Anthony. Early Short Stories. Ed. John Sutherland. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. xxxi + 492. $9.95 or [pounds]5.99 paper. ISBN 0-19-282987-4.
Trollope, Anthony. The Last Chronicle of Barset. Ed. David Skilton. North Clarendon VT: Charles E. Tuttle; London: J. M. Dent, 1993. Pp. xxviii + 787. [pounds]13.99. ISBN 0-460-87234-6.
Tucker, George Holbert. Jane Austen, the Woman: Some Biographical Insights. New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 1995. Pp. xvii + 268. $23.95 cloth. ISBN 0-312-12049-4. $13.95. ISBN 0-312-12688-3.
Vendler, Helen. The Breaking of Style: Hopkins, Heaney, Graham. Cambridge MA and London: Harvard Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. x + 100. $29.95 cloth. ISBN 0-674-08120-X. $14.00 paper. ISBN 0-674-08121-8.
Victorian Literature and Culture, Vol. 22. Ed. John Maynard and Adrienne Auslander Munich. New York: AMS Press, 1994. Pp. 411. $57.50. ISBN 0-404-64222-5.
Victorian Poetry n.s. 33, 2 (Summer 1995). Ed. Hayden Ward. Morgantown WV: West Virginia Univ. Press, 1995. Pp. ii + 140. $30.00 annually for institutions, U.S., and Canada (plus $5.00 foreign). $18.00 annually for individuals, U.S., and Canada (plus $5.00 foreign). $6.00 annually for students. $6.00 for single current issue ($12.00 double issue). ISSN 0042-5206.
Waddington, Patrick, ed. Ivan Turgenev and Britain. Anglo/Russian Affinities. Oxford and Providence RI: Berg, 1995. Pp. x + 302. $45.95 or [pounds]39.95. ISBN 0-85496-755-9.
Wagner, Jennifer Ann. A Moment's Monument: Revisionary Poetics and the Nineteenth-Century English Sonnet. Madison and Teaneck NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson Univ. Press; London: Associated Univ. Presses, 1996. Pp. 254. $38.50. ISBN 0-8386-3630-6.
Wallace, Tara Ghoshal. Jane Austen and Narrative Authority. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995. Pp. xi + 155. $39.95. ISBN 0-312-12236-5.
Watanabe, Nancy Ann. Beloved Image: The Drama of W. B. Yeats, 1865-1939. Lanham NY and London: Univ. Press of America, 1995. Pp. xvi + 416. $62.50. ISBN 0-7618-0031-X.
Weintraub, Stanley. Shaw's People: Victoria to Churchill. University Park PA: Pennsylvania State Univ. Press, 1996. Pp. v + 255. $29.50 or [pounds]26.50. ISBN 0-271-01501-4.
Welsh, Alexander. Strong Representations: Narrative and Circumstantial Evidence in England. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1992; 1995 paper. Pp. xi + 262. $14.95 paper. ISBN 0-8018-4271-9.
White, Norman. Hopkins: A Literary Biography. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1992; 1995 paper. Pp. xviii + 531. $19.95 paper. ISBN 0-19-818350-X.
Whitehead, Frank. George Crabbe: A Reappraisal. Selinsgrove PA: Susquehanna Univ. Press; London: Associated Univ. Presses, 1995. Pp. 243. $38.50. ISBN 0-945-636-70-9.
Wilde, Oscar. The Ballad of Reading Gaol, 1898. Decadents, Symbolists, Anti-Decadents: Poetry of the 1890s. Ed. R. K. R. Thornton and Ian Small. New York: Woodstock Books, 1995. Pp. xvii + 31. $43.00. ISBN 0-85477-159-0.
Wilde, Oscar. Oscar Wilde's "The Importance of Being Earnest": A Reconstructive Critical Edition of the Text of the First Production, St. James's Theatre, London, 1895. Ed. Joseph Donohue and Ruth Berggren. Gerrards Cross, England: Colin Smythe, 1995. Pp. 376. [pounds]35.00. ISBN 0-86140-378-9.
Wilde, Oscar. Poems, 1892. Decadents, Symbolists, Anti-Decadents: Poetry of the 1890s. Ed. R. K. R. Thornton and Ian Small. New York: Woodstock Books, 1995. Pp. xix + 234. $55.00. ISBN 0-85477-158-2.
Williams, John. William Wordsworth: A Literary Life. Literary Lives. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996. Pp. ix + 208. $35.00. ISBN 0-312-15864-5.
Williams, Linda Ruth. Critical Desire: Psychoanalysis and the Literary Subject. Interrogating Texts. London and New York: Edward Arnold; distributed in U.S. by St. Martin's Press, 1995. Pp. xii + 212. $59.50 cloth. ISBN 0-340-64557-1. $16.95 paper. ISBN 0-340-56816-X.
Winter, Kari J. Subjects of Slavery, Agents of Change: Women and Power in Gothic Novels and Slave Narratives, 1790-1865. Athens and London: Univ. of Georgia Press, 1992; 1995 paper. Pp. xii + 172. $16.00 paper. ISBN 0-8203-1788-8.
Wratislaw, Theodore. "Caprices, "1893 with "Orchids, "1896. Decadents, Symbolists, Anti-Decadents: Poetry of the 1890s. Ed. R. K. R. Thornton and Ian Small. Oxford and New York: Woodstock Books, 1995. Pp. xxvii + 104. $48.00. ISBN 1-85477-160-4.
Yeats, William Butler. Poems, 1895. Decadents, Symbolists, Anti-Decadents: Poetry of the 1890s. Ed. R. K. R. Thornton and Ian Small. Oxford and New York: Woodstock Books, 1995. Pp. xxiii + 286. $49.50. ISBN 0-85477-161-2.
Yeats, William Butler. The Wind Among the Reeds, 1899. Decadents, Symbolists, Anti-Decadents: Poetry of the 1890s. Ed. R. K. R. Thornton and Ian Small. Oxford and New York: Woodstock Books, 1995. Pp. xviii + 108. $43.00. ISBN 1-85477-162-0.
Clyde de L. Ryals is professor of English at Duke University and author of several books on Victorian subjects, the latest of which is The Life of Robert Browning (1993). He is also the editor of the ongoing multivolume Collected Letters of Thomas and Jane Welsh Carlyle.…