Relation between Aspects of Mother's Personality and Children's Behavior Disorders

Article excerpt

Introduction

A child is in contact with various human factors in the house and family environment, but the most important and the most fundamental of these factors is the mother (Bretherton, 1985). Studies in different aspects of child growth including physical and psychological have been conducted. Physical growth which results from genetic factors and environmental motivations continues in childhood and adolescence but the psychological growth an individual encounters evolves from early birth to the end of life with a wide army of changes. Psychological growth has various aspects and dimensions such as mental (cognitive) growth, sensitive growth, social growth and ethical growth. Studies have shown that heredity has a determinant role in individual's mental talents, all training conditions and factors also have an effective portion in mental growth. Emotional growth is one of the most important psychological aspects of human growth and development (Westbrook, 2008; Sarsour, 2008; Prior et. al, 2008). Growth doesn't occur in vacuum: every person lives in several contexts simultaneously (Kreppner and Lerner, 1989). The closest context is family. Although other contexts in which the child thrives are also important, such as school, peer group, religious organizations and political systems.

The early years of life are the most important period of growth in training and formation of individual character (Prior et. al, 2008). Psychologists have emphasized the relationship of children with persons who assume primary care to them in most years of the present century and consider these mutual relations as a fundamental basis of emotional and cognitive growth (Freud, 1964; Bowlby, 1969; Watson, 1928). An importance which theorists of topical relationships believe for key role of mother in child revolution is to the extent that some of them such as Winnicott (1960) believe that in the early life, there is not an infant without mother at all. Past research have provided the evidence of strong attachment between mother and child particularly in early years of development (Main, Kaplan, Cassidy, 1985). Theorists have found elements which play a fundamental role in understanding emotional situations and problems of the child. Therefore, problems in this primary mother--child relationship, such as specific properties of mother character, mother's psychological disorder, unfamiliarity of mother in child training, lack of an appropriate and fundamental communication with child, can result in psychological disorders in future life of the child.

There are three fundamental theories emphasize the relationship between child and mother as a very important and sensitive factor in respect of child's social growth. These include psychoanalysis, learning and ethology theory (Santrock, 2006). In psychoanalytic theory, the tendency of the children to reach emotional joy causes them to spend their emotional energy, called libido, so other persons will satisfy the child's needs. For example; hunger need, would cause enjoyment in them. Psychoanalytic theory also purports that the first relationship of the child forms the basis of his character. In social learning theory, the hypothesis is posed that the parents have a role in reducing biological problems such as hunger and thirst. Reducing hunger and thirst establishes the basis of emotional relationship between mother and child (Charlesworth, 2003). The third theory is based on ethology. Some studies have been conducted within the paradigm of ethology theory in respect to the attachment of children to their mothers. Ethology focuses on the study of animals in their natural environment and the observation of their behavioral patterns (Santrock, 2006). Theorists pose that human child is genetically ready to be attached to the person who takes care of him. It further asserts that these attachments are valuable evolutionally as they help the child to adapt to the environment. …