The purpose of this study was to analyze what a group teachers say to English Language Learners as part of the curriculum and instruction, and to categorize the comments along the lines of scientific curriculum inquiry. Observations and interviews were the primary methods of data collection for this proposed study. An analysis was made of what the teachers were saying to communicate curricular applications and instructional modifications made in ESL classrooms. The language that this group of teachers used was coded to describe the originality of the types of statements made by the teachers. The study did not attempt to evaluate the teachers' effectiveness. The study also did not attempt to predict success of the curricular adaptations and instructional modifications. In conclusion, teachers used language to manage time, lessons, and the classroom. As a result of further analysis, as related to curricular adaptations and instructional modifications, the language was found as being of substance (what), educational practice (how), and purpose (why).
The need for curriculum and instruction that adequately serves English Language Learners (ELLS) in the United States is an area that has yet to be fully explored. Curriculum and instruction for these students has traditionally been limited to that offered through Bilingual Education programs. Bilingual Education uses two languages for instruction and has been part of education in the United States for more than 100 years with classrooms set up in early America for German-speaking children. (1)
Educators are now faced with implementing second language acquisition strategies as part of the curriculum and instruction in order to meet the linguistic needs of ELLs. The curriculum and instruction that teachers give the students provide the scaffolding to construct knowledge in a second or foreign language.
Statement of the Problem
The problem of this study is that the instructional language use of teachers to teach ELLS has limited research. Therefore, in order to educate ELLS so as to improve the delivery of curriculum and instruction, there is a lack of research to provide insight into the way(s) that teachers talk to students with linguistically diverse backgrounds.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to analyze a group of teachers in terms of what they were saying to their ELLS as part of the curriculum and instruction they provided, and to categorize the comments as part of an analysis along the lines of curriculum inquiry. In this study, the language itself that the teachers used provided a description of the experience, or giving information on the situation where we have to "pay attention to the context of such statements before we can decide upon their use." (2)
Theoretical/Conceptual Framework: Phenomenology
Given the unique nature of this study, a specialized focus was needed. In attempting to address the problem of this study, a phenomenological approach was taken. Phenomenology is the study of phenomena, including the meanings found through a specific experience. In a given situation, or phenomenon, there are unique essential structures. Phenomenological research is a form of inquiry that attends to the perceptions and meanings of individuals concerning a specific experience they have lived. Husserl, who is known as the founder of phenomenology, maintained that in order to attain certainty, a researcher needed to go to the site of the researched phenomena in order to understand it. He concluded, "all knowledge is in human consciousness." (3)
This conclusion was Husserl's attempt at refuting traditional scientific notions concerning positivism, namely that there are essential structures that underlie phenomena. (4) These essential structures, unique to the situation being studied, are the phenomena being studied. Phenomenological research seeks to discover the essences of phenomena. By engaging in a reflective examination of an experience, phenomenology provides an investigative method to discover and to present phenomena.
Upon arriving at a phenomenon, a description contains the essential structures of an experience that reflect the experience, "[s]o that in the words, or perhaps in spite of the words, we find 'memories' that paradoxically we never thought or felt before." (5) Thus, a phenomenological description will not contain a summary or conclusion of the phenomenon examined. A phenomenological description will present the lived experience as it was for those participating in it and in a manner that those reading the description can gain deeper understanding of that experience or phenomenon. Ricoeur (6) added to this discussion by acknowledging that as humans encounter themselves in situations or experiences, they have something to say, thereby, bringing experience to language. Therefore, as an approach to this study, phenomenology provides a qualitative way to allow the study of language that the teachers used to describe the curricular applications and instructional modifications that occur in their classrooms.
Description of the Study
The following were limitations of this study.
1. The study attempted to identify the curricular applications and instructional modifications made by classroom teachers.
2. The study attempted to describe the underlying structures made through spoken discourse that affect curricular applications and instructional modifications to meet the needs of English Language Learners (ELLs).
3. The study attempted to fill in a gap in the literature regarding curriculum and instruction for ELLS.
The following were delimitations of this study.
1. The study did not attempt to evaluate the curricular applications and instructional modifications of the second language acquisition strategies.
2. The study did not attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of the classroom teacher.
3. The study did not attempt to predict success of the curricular applications and instructional modifications.
The purpose of this section is to provide a survey of relevant literature as it relates to linguistics and curriculum and instruction in meeting the needs of English Language Learners (ELLS). The primary goal of this review is a focus on developing an understanding of the underlying phenomena of language as an identifiable and integral part of curriculum and instruction in terms of teaching ELLS. Historical context, current problems, and future implications are particular areas of interest. Aspects to be considered in this review of the literature are discourse analysis, teacher talk, and curriculum theory. The findings and other conclusions in the literature should reveal additional facets of how language affects curriculum and instruction.
It should be clarified that this study in its entirety was not focused on any one specific area of research, making it a unique study as it attempted to provide a better understanding of teaching ELLS. The analysis was not a traditional discourse analysis because only the teachers' comments were analyzed (rather than the discourse between the teacher and students). The rationale for including a look at the literature on discourse analysis was to show the complexity and theoretical examinations of language in a language classroom as a way to contrast the practical type of analysis provided in this study.
The existing literature on this topic broadens research perspectives in that more research is needed to provide insight into this complex topic. A gap was found in the literature regarding curriculum and instruction for English language learners.
Discourse Analysis: A Historical Context
A Research Tradition
Research traditions have helped to identify areas for investigation to answer questions relating to the forms and functions of language. Such a predetermined view of language historically has led to interpretations of the research in linguistics that are primarily focused on a particular application of language.
Chaudron (7) included discourse analysis as one of the research traditions in which a study of classroom transcripts and an assignment of utterances to predetermined categories were conducted. An analysis of discourse traditionally has been primarily a linguistic endeavor, and the tern has come to be used to cover a variety of activities relating to how humans use language to communicate and, "in particular, how addressers construct linguistic messages for addressees and how addressees work on linguistic messages in order to interpret them." (8)
Chaudron (9) exemplified this reductionist type of linguistic research in his development of a descriptive model of discourse in the corrective treatment of errors in the language classroom. As framed in Figure 1, discourse analysis can be seen as a complex and involved investigation resulting from various levels and applications of language in a given situation.
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[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Teacher Talk and Curriculum: A Look at Current Issues
A Voice in the Classroom
Many of the studies of language learning and language teaching focus on interactions that take place. The voices that are heard in the classroom provide the discourse that is analyzed and categorized as part of a research tradition. What is commonly known as teacher talk, the adjustments to "both language form and language function in order to facilitate communication," (10) to have been documented as the teachers' interactions with the learners in formal classroom settings. Several studies have been published outlining features associated with the interactions that teachers have with learners.
Nonetheless, research reflects that what teachers say in the classroom does indeed make a difference. A review by Mohr considered the research done over the 25 previous years and pointed out that:
Effective schools research delineates teacher behaviours that are deemed productive. However, many of these behaviours are management and procedural functions. Classroom discourse and communication research helps to clarify specific teacher-talk behaviours that may enhance student achievement. Integrating these disciplines with an understanding of motivational research serves to provide a nexus for specific study of motivational factors in effective teachers' talk during literacy instruction. (11)
A Discussion of Curriculum Theory
Curriculum theorists have written diverse definitions of the different schools of thought concerning curriculum. Eisner and Vallance (12) hypothesized five conflicting conceptions of curriculum: technological, cognitive, self-actualizing, social-reconstructionst, and academic rationalist. Three other commentaries on curriculum have been suggested by Schubert: (13) intellectual/traditionalist, social behaviorist, and experimentalist. Miller and Seller (14) categorized curriculum in terms of transmission, transaction, and transformation. Pratt (15) added to the discussion four orientations of curriculum: cultural transmission, social transformation, individual fulfillment, and feminist pedagogy.
Curriculum refers to plans for instructional acts for the specific purpose of enhancing human well-being according to Pratt. Curriculum research is related to "a cluster of practical activities focusing on conceiving, expressing, justifying and enacting educational programs." (16) Schwab (17) focuses on three areas in an attempt to address a practical language for curriculum:
1. The Practical: the outcome is a decision; problems "arise from states of affairs in relation to ourselves.
2. The Quasi-Practical: extension of the practical, with variations; deliberation is key; integrative in nature.
3. The Eclectic: recognizes the usefulness of theory to curriculum decisions, and provides some degree of repair of these weaknesses; eclectic operations bring into clear view the particular truncation of subject characteristic of a given theory and bring to light the partiality of its view.
Schwab offered educators the opportunity to consider curriculum as part of a larger, more practical, educational scheme. He suggested that "the stuff of theory is abstract or idealized representations of real things. But curriculum in action treated real things: real acts, real teachers, real children, things richer than and different from their theoretical representations.
In reviewing the literature on curriculum and instruction, John Dewey emerges to add insight to the discussion. Dewey has written that "all human experience is ultimately social: that it involves contact and communication." (18) As such, educators who received training in second language methods are faced with the responsibility of teaching ELLs because of the communicative nature of their teaching field. Educators must continue to move away from traditional, or foundational attitudes (19) that have perpetuated myths about language learning and language teaching.
Implications for research on teaching ELLS also necessitates a look at lines of curriculum inquiry. By providing lenses through which issues or problems in curriculum and instruction can be seen, curriculum inquiry not only helps us determine theoretical facets of curriculum as proposed by Eisner and Valiance, Pratt, or Tyler (20), but curriculum inquiry also gives us a way to connect language or teacher talk to curriculum and instruction. Particularly when discussing the implications that this type of connection has for ELLS, opportunities arise for the examination of the scientific and phenomenological lines of curriculum inquiry as viable means of describing the connection between language and curriculum and instruction.
Short expressed the idea that types of curricular activities involve making decisions on a variety of issues, which form guidelines for governing curriculum and instruction. Both the scientific and phenomenological lines of curriculum inquiry can provide guidelines for teaching ELLs through the language that is used for curriculum and instruction.
Foshay (21) wrote that curriculum should be the starting place for the investigation into the "purpose, substance, and practice ... that is, we intend to accomplish something (a purpose), by offering some experiences (the substance), and by fitting the learning method to actual students (educational practice)." (22) Connecting language to curriculum and instruction is possible when using the scientific line of curriculum inquiry as a means of making the connection. Therefore, researchers have a way to acknowledge that "all facts about the curriculum derive their meanings from their contexts. 'Scientific' curriculum studies therefore consist of facts-in-context. Language, as such, in curriculum and instruction provides the context.
After considering the literature, it is known that the areas of linguistics and curriculum and instruction are well-documented, primarily as independent mutually exclusive fields, with little or no direct and deliberate reference to one another. In linguistics, in the area of teacher talk especially, the research shows second language acquisition occurs with the applications of methods that have been developed for ELLS. Frameworks have been presented that consider the complexity of the multiple capacities of language. Winograd (23) focused on research questions into viewing language as a knowledge-based process. Blakemore (24) also added to the discussion:
hearer's knowledge of her language and her knowledge of the world ... This implies that the mind does not develop as a whole, but with specific capacities developing in their own ways and in their own time. In other words, knowledge of language cannot be regarded as the result of general intelligence. It also implies that actual linguistic performance--that is, the way we use language--is the result of the interaction of a number of different systems.
Methodology: Categorizing Language Design: Qualitative Research
The rationale behind the research design selected for this study was based on qualitative research methodologies. An analysis of the comments made by teachers was a situation, or phenomenon, wherein a qualitative research method was appropriate. Due to the naturalistic, or qualitative, approach to focus on the complexities of the situation, (25) qualitative research provided the most suitable research design for this study of complexities related to the nature of language use as an integral part of curriculum and instruction. Through thick descriptions outlining the themes that emerged, the language was categorized according to what language was used, how the language was used, and why the language was used by the participants in this study.
Thick descriptions refer to the inclusion of details of the data collection that help to contextualize the text for the reader (26) by including comments from the fieldnotes such as the logistics of the research site. Moreover, the theoretical basis for the qualitative research design lies in terms of a scientific line of curriculum inquiry that looks at the substance, purpose, and practice of an educational experience, or phenomenon (27).
In order to understand the appropriateness of this design, it is important to note that qualitative researchers do not begin with a hypothesis; qualitative researchers participate in an attempt to discover, uncover, apprehend, and comprehend the meaning(s) of the situation from the perspective of the participants as the meanings present themselves in interviews and observations. The researcher is the primary research instrument in a qualitative study. (28) In terms of this study, the implementation of qualitative research methodologies provided the most meaningful opportunities for gathering the information (teacher talk) and analyzing the information to make the connections between linguistics and curriculum and instruction. By assuming the responsibility for data-collection methods and data-analysis strategies, the qualitative researcher establishes the parameters for the investigation in an attempt to frame the participants' perspectives accurately. (29) Whether the data are collected on video, audio, or as part of an extensive set of fieldnotes, the researcher is responsible for attending to and being consciously aware of the questions being asked and the perceptions being documented. Therefore, in qualitative research, the researcher addresses the issues of subjectivity and credibility.
Phenomenology is the study of phenomena, including the meanings found through a specific experience. In a given situation, or phenomenon, there are unique essential structures. As with this study, the language that classroom teachers used, a phenomenon was uncovered that opened an area of study that engaged the research efforts in an examination of a unique experience. Traditional attitudes toward the way that teachers talk and the relationship that this type of language has with curriculum and instruction were set aside. In this study, the language itself that the teachers used provided a description of the experience, or gave information on the situation (i.e. phenomena) where we have to "pay attention to the context of such statements before we can decide upon their use." (30) These experiences were where "cognition of the domain of actual phenomena ... has been turned into scientific experience, in virtue of the application of pure cognition about corresponding possibilities." (31) Therefore, the language that was analyzed in this study was only that of the classroom teachers as they each delivered the curriculum and instruction to their respective classes as a large group, rather than the one-on-one tutoring/teaching.
Treatment of the Data
Inasmuch as qualitative research is dependent on the phenomena of the situation and location the data were collected through observations, tape recordings, and interviews. Detailed fieldnotes also provided information to help in analyzing the phenomena that were studied. The consciousness of the comments came through the thick descriptions as they emerged in the interviews and from the observations.
Categorizing. The comments were analyzed according to the themes that emerged from the data, which was part of a qualitative research design. Whether the language was identified as morphological or phonological occurrences was determined by the data collected in order to describe the smallest units of meaning and sound. The language was coded along the lines of scientific inquiry in order to "accomplish something (a purpose), by offering some experiences (the substance), and by fitting the learning method to actual students (educational practice)." (32) Here began the integration of linguistics and curriculum and instruction. By framing the analysis in terms of linguistics, I emphasized gaining an understanding of the source of the comments, which made the techniques of the data analysis appropriate for the study.
Analysis: Implications for Teaching ELLS
Because this study was concerned with the phenomenon of the comments made by the teachers, the results emerged from the collected data and the themes uncovered through analysis rather than as a result of a preset hypothesis. As characteristic of the phenomenological approach, the comments made were the basis for the analysis that could have been possible only after the observations and tape recordings were made. Polkinghorne (33) has noted that the data analysis in qualitative research incorporates different strategies:
Research strategies are based in the nature of the subject matter under investigation. The subject matter of human science is the human realm, and the special characteristics of this realm inform the researcher which of the various approaches to gathering data, which data types, and which kinds of data analysis are appropriate. Polkinghorne (34) also has stated, as was relevant to the analysis of the data in this study: Data of the linguistic type are not susceptible to statistical analysis unless they are first translated into the numerical type. Thus, the processes used in analyzing or examining the data to be used in presenting the knowledge claims should be related to the data type and to data-gathering practices ... In working with linguistic data, the researcher is primarily seeking to identify patterns which appear across the examples.
An Analysis of the Data Along a Scientific Line of Curriculum Inquiry: Substance, Purpose, and Educational Practice
Each teacher was observed delivering curriculum and instruction to a particular group of students in an effort to maintain the phenomenological focus of the study. Once the observations and recordings were completed, transcriptions were prepared to facilitate the data analysis by having the comments readily available for inspection on paper. In keeping with the focus of this study, only the teacher comments were transcribed and analyzed. In addition, only the comments made in English by the teachers were transcribed and analyzed. As the comments were reviewed, themes emerged from the data that led to categorization along a line of curriculum inquiry. Such a line of inquiry allowed for a structuring of the comments to reinforce the meaning(s) of what was contained in the language, and how and why the language was used. Berg (35) has noted that:
the theme is a more useful unit to count. In its simplest form, a theme is a simple sentence, a string of words with a subject and a predicate. Because themes may be located in a variety of places in most written documents, it becomes necessary to specify (in advance) which places will be searched. As for the categorization of themes, Berg (36) has found that: there are no easy ways to describe specific tactics for developing categories or to suggest how to go about defining (operationalizing) these tactics ... The development of categories in any content analysis must derive from inductive reference ... concerning patterns that emerge from the data. In addition, Foshay (37) wrote: When we consider a scientific approach to the curriculum, therefore, we must begin, not with science, but with curriculum. The curriculum as a field for study and action, consists of three main dimensions: purpose, substance, and practice ... That is, we intend to accomplish something (a purpose), by offering some experiences (the substance), and by fitting the learning method to actual students (educational practice). Study of the curriculum consists of dealing with the manifold interactions among these three dimensions, as well as studying the nature of each part. However, it is in the interaction, not in the parts separately, that the curriculum exists.
Substance: What Language Was Used As Part of the Curriculum and Instruction to Teach ELLs
The language that the participants used was the focus of this study, particularly in terms of curricular applications and instructional modifications to teach ELLS. As suggested by a scientific line of curriculum inquiry, the substance of the documented language was to be found in the actual tape-recordings. The student responses were not included in the transcriptions due to the phenomenological nature of the study that would emphasize the language used by the teachers.
Purpose: Why the Language Was Used As Part of the Curriculum and Instruction to Teach ELLS--Curricular Applications
In reviewing the transcriptions of the teachers' language in their respective classrooms and in relation to curriculum inquiry, it was significant to identify language that exemplified "why" the participants said what they said. Knowing that the teachers were all attempting to teach ELLS, curricular applications were made. For the purposes of this study, the curricular applications were coded according to any example of language used to manage the following: the classroom, the lesson, and the time.
The language used to manage the classroom included comments to redirect off-task behavior, while the language used to manage the lesson included language that directly related to the content that was being taught--both in relation to the curriculum. Moreover, the language used to manage the time reflected the teacher's conscious efforts to maintain a schedule that was conducive to lemming and efficient. As part of curriculum, or "a field for study and action," (38) each of these areas of adaptations emerged as a category that was labeled on the transcriptions.
Educational Practice: How the Language Was Used As Part of the Curriculum and Instruction to Teach ELLS--Instructional Modifications
As part of the analysis of the language, the tape recordings were used to identify instructional modifications. Within the transcriptions were examples of language that exemplified modifications in the following areas: speech and syntax. As stated, the literature reviewed provided frameworks for the analysis of the teachers' comments, namely that repetitions are modifications of speech and restating requests by changing questions into statements are modifications of syntax.
The language used to modify the instruction included making comments such as repetitions (i.e., modifying speech) and asking questions for clarification (i.e., modifying syntax), both in relation to the instruction.
First of all, this particular group of teachers had been found to have applied specific second-language-acquisition methods to their delivery of curriculum and instruction. In addition, this group of teachers who have been assigned to teach ELLS use language to manage time, lessons, and the classroom. As a result of further analysis, as related to curricular applications and instructional modifications, the language was found as being of substance (what), purpose (why), and educational practice (how) (See Appendix A).
On the basis of the above findings and conclusions, the recommendations of the qualitative research and the phenomenological approach taken to collect the data, the following recommendations are made to teachers of ELLS.
Analysis of the Data Along a Scientific Line of Curriculum Inquiry: Substance, Purpose, and Educational Practice
Finding that the participants in this study have not been made aware of the impact and roles of their language as part of the curriculum and instruction, I recommend that pre-service and in-service, content area teachers should be provided with an analysis, such as the one outlined in this study, to help them determine what language they use (i.e. substance), why they use that language (i.e. purpose), and how they use that language (i.e. educational practice) as the curricular applications and the instructional modifications to teach ELLS.
Recommendations for Further Study
Teaching ELLS is an area of study that merits further research. Finally, it should be noted that the teachers of ELLS could be given an opportunity to conduct action research in their classrooms to categorize their own comments through recordings. This type of research would give teachers opportunities to reflect and gain awareness of the importance of the role of language in making curricular applications and instructional modifications to teach ELLS, allowing the teachers to connect theory to practice in teaching ELLS.
Berg, Bruce. Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2000.
Blakemore, Diane. Understanding utterances. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers, 1992.
Bogdan, Robert. C. and Sari K. Biklen. Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods, Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1992.
Brown, Gillian and George Yule. Discourse Analysis. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Ress, 1983.
Chaudron, Craig. "A descriptive model of discourse in the corrective treatment of learners' errors." Language Learning 27 (1977): 29-46. Blackwell Publishing.
--. Second language classrooms: Research on teaching and learning. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
Dewey, John. A. Hall-Quest (ed.) Experience and education. New York: Touchstone, 1938.1997.
Duemer, Lee. S. "Comparative analysis of foundational and transformative approaches to teaching history of education". Journal of Midwest History of Education Society 26 (1999).
Eisner, Elliot. W., and Elizabeth Vallance. (ads.). Conflicting conceptions of curriculum. Berkeley, CA: McCutehan, 1973.
Ellis, Rod. The. study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Foshay, Arbor. W. "Scientific inquiry: Explanations and limits." In E.C. Short fed.), Forms of curriculum inquiry (pp. 89-100). Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991.
-- The curriculum matrix. The Educational Forum, 51 (1987): 341-353.
Garcia, Ricardo. L. Teaching in a pluralistic society. New York: Harper and Row, 1982.
Juarez-Tories, Rachel. 2002. Teaching Limited English Proficient Students: An analysis of curricular and instructional comments made by in-service, content-area teachers in a middle school. Ed.D, Texas Tech University.
Lincoln, Yvonna. S. and Egon G. Guba. Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1985.
Marbach, Eduard. "How to study consciousness phenomenologically: Or quite a lot comes to mind." Journal of the British Sociery for Phenomenology, 19 (1988):252-268.
Miller, John. P. and Wayne Seller. (1985). Curriculum perspectives and practice. New York: Longman, 1985.
Mitchell, John G. Re-visioning educational leadership: A phenomenological approach. New York: Garland Publishing, 1990.
Mohr, Kathleen. "Teacher talk: A summary analysis of effective teachers' discourse during primary literacy lessons". Journal of Classroom Interaction 33 (1998): 16-23.
Patton, Michael. Q. Qualitative research and evaluation methods (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1990.
Polkinghorne, Donald. Methodology for the human sciences. Systems of inquiry. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1983.
Pratt, David. Curriculum planning. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace, 1994.
Ricoeur, Paul. Interpretation theory: Discourse and the surplus of meaning. Fort Worth, TX: Texas Christian University Press, 1976.
Schubert, William. H. Curriculum: Perspective, paradigm, and possibility. New York: Macmillan, 1986.
Schwab, Joseph. J. The practical: A language for curriculum. Washington, DC: National Education Association, 1970.
Short. Edmund. C. Forms of curriculum inquiry. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1991.
Strauss, Anselm and Juliet Corbin Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1990.
Tyler, Ralph. W. Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1949.
Van Maneen, Max. Researching lived experience: Human science for arc action sensitive pedagogy. New York: State University of New York Press, 1990.
Wilson, John. Language & the pursuit of truth. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1956.
Winograd, Terry. Language as a cognitive process. Volume P .Syntax. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1983.
Rachel Juarez-Torres, Assistant Professor of Education The University of Texas of the Permian Basin
(1)Ricardo L. Garcia. Teaching in a pluralistic society (New York: Harper Row, 1982).
(2) John Wilson. Language & the pursuit of truth (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1956), 57.
(3) John Mitchell. Re-visioning educational leadership: A phenomenological approach (New York: Garland Publising, 1990),255.
(4) Michael Q. Patton. Qualitative research and evaluation methods (Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1990).
(5) Max Van Meneen. Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy (New Yor), State University ofNew York Press, 1990), 13.
(6) Paul Ricoeur. Interpreting theory: Discourse and the surplus of meaning (Fort Worth, TX: Texas Christian University Press, 1976).
(7) Craig Cbaudron. Second language classmoms: research on teaching and learning (Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1988).
(8) Gillian Brown and George Yule. Discourse Analysis (Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1983), is.
(9) Craig Chaudron. "A descriptive model of discourse in the corrective treatment of leamers' errors." Language Learning 27 (1977): 29-46. Blackwell Publishing.
(10) Rod Ellis. The study ofsecond language acquisition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994), 726.
(11) Kathleen A. J. Mohr. "Teacher talk: A summary analysis of effective teachers' discourse during primary literacy lessons." Journal of Classroom Interaction 33 (1998):16.
(12) Elliot Eisner and Elizabeth Vallance, eds., Confliction conceptions of curriculum (Berkeley, CA: McCutchan, 1973).
(13) William Schubert. Curriculum: perspectives, paradigm, and possibility (New York: Macmillan, 1986).
(14) John P. Miller and Wayne J. Seller. Curriculum perspectives and practice (New York: Longman, 1985).
(15) David Pratt. Curriculum planning (Orlando, FL: Harcoutt Brace, 1994).
(16) Edmund C. Short. Forms of curriculum inquiry (Albany, NY: State University ofNew York Press, 1991), 1.
(17) Joseph J. Schwab. The practical: A language for curriculum (Washington, DC: National Education Association, 1970),3-27.
(18) John Dewey. A. Hall-Quest, ed. Experience and education (New York: Touchstone, 1938/1997),38.
(19) Lee. S. Duemer. "Comparative analysis of foundational and uansformative approaches to teaching history." Journal of Midwest History of Education Society 29 (1999).
(20) Ralph W. Tyler. Basic principles ofcurriculum and instruction (Chicago: University ofChicago press, 1949).
(21) Arthur W. Foshay. "The curriculum matrix." The Educational Forum 51(1987): 341-353.
(22) Arthur W. Foshay. "Scientific inquiry: Explanations and limits." In Edmund C. Short, ed., Forms of curriculum inquiry (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1991), 89-100.
(23) Terry Winograd. "Linguistic simplification of SL reading material: Effective instruction practice? Modern Language Journal 83 (1983): 350-366.
(24) Diane Make--Understanding utterances (Oxford, UK: Black-11 publishers, 1992), 39-40.
(25) Anselm Strauss and Juliet Corbin. Basic of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques (Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1990).
(26) Bruce Berg. Qualitative research methods for the social sciences, 4'" ed. (Boston: AIlyn and Bacon 2001).
(27) Arthur W. Foshay. "Scientific inquiry: Explanations and limits." In Edmund C. Short, ed, Forms of curriculum inquiry (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1991), 89-100.
(28) Yvonna S. Lincoln and Egon G. Gaba. Naturalistic inquiry (Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1985).
(29) Robert C. Bogdan and Sari K. Biklen Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1992).
(30) John Wilson. Language and the pursuit of truth (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1956), 57.
(31) Eduard Marbach. "How to study consciousness phenomenologically: Or quite a lot comes to mind." Journal of the British Sociery for Phenomenology 19 (1988):252-268.
(32) Arthur W. Foshay. "Scientific inquiry: Explanations and limits." In Edmund C. Short, ed., Forms of curriculum inquiry (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1991), 89-100.
(33) Donald Polkinghorn. Methodology for the human sciences: Systems of inquiry (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1983), 259.
(34) --. Methodology for the human sciences: Systems of inquiry (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1983), 279.
(35) Bruce Berg. Qualitative research methods for the social sciences, 4th ed. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon 2001), 246.
(36) --. Qualitative research methods for the social sciences, 4th ed. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon 2001), 249.
(37) Arthur W. Foshay. "Scientific inquiry: Explanations and limits." In Edmund C. Short, ed., Forms of curriculum inquiry (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1991), 89.
(38) Arthur W. Foshay. "Scientific inquiry: Explanations and limits." In Edmund C. Short, ed., Forms ofcumiculum inquiry (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1991), 89.
Appendix A Examples of Language Used--Substance, Purpose Practice Purpose Teacher Substance (curricular application) 1 * Number your paper. You * Time management have three more minutes. * So, you're going to write a * Lesson management paragraph about one of these words, okay? On the same paper ... on the same paper. Remember what is a paragraph? About four to five sentences, right? * Up here they have correctly * Lesson management written sentences, but they should be combined. If I had two really short, short sentences ... [c]ould I combine them? How could I put them together? * I want your 15 sentences by * Time management 12:47, 12:47. You have all of 15 minutes..12:47 you need to have your 15 sentences. 2 * So, everybody, quiet. This * Classroom management word, this word means to close, to close. * This is a person, this is a * Lesson management person. Who won? What is won? Who won a great victory for the confederacy, for the confederacy? What is confederacy? * How long, how long, did the * Lesson management Civil War last? How long did it last? How long did the war last? * Okay, boys. Go finish the * Classroom management drawings. Go finish the drawings. Educational Practice (instructional Teacher modification) Criteria for Examples 1 * Syntax * The teacher stated the modification instruction as a command. * Speech * The teacher repeated modification her instructions. * Syntax * The teacher changed modification the word order of her instruction. * Speech * The teacher repeated modification her instruction. 2 * Speech * The teacher repeated modification her instruction. * Speech * The teacher repeated modification her instruction. * Speech * The teacher repeated modification her instruction. * Speech * The teacher repeated modification her instruction.…