Academic journal article
By Trinlae, Bhiksuni Lozang
Journal of Buddhist Ethics , Vol. 17
No compelling evidence has been produced to indicate that Tibetan Buddhism has ever maintained a complete monastic community that included fully ordained women. Over the past several decades, however, a number of women practitioners of Tibetan Buddhism, ordained as Mula novice nuns, have sought and obtained full-ordination following Dharmaguptaka Vinaya procedures preserved in Chinese Mahayana Buddhist societies. Demand for bhiksun ordination has led to the administration of several bhiksun ordination ceremonies in various countries designed to accommodate the needs of international candidates, and to on-going questions among Tibetan Buddhists about whether it is possible and suitable for Tibetan Buddhist monastic groups following Mula Vinaya to directly offer full-ordination to women.
Despite regular opportunities to discuss the prospect of offering full-ordination to Tibetan Buddhist women, there is little evidence of widespread support for it among Mula clergy. Contemporary moral theory can help us to identify possible reasons for this apparent lack of support, and can help indicate specific obstacles that will have to be overcome before Tibetan Buddhist groups are likely to invite women to join its communities as fully ordained members.
Contemporary social cognitivist Lawrence Kohlberg of Harvard's Center for Moral Education, in his stage theory of moral development, plotted a six-stage evolutionary trajectory of moral development spanning pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional levels. It has been referenced in the constructive-developmentalism object-relations psychological development model of research-theorist Robert Kegan (52-53). It can be further summarized as shown in figure 1:
Fig. 1. Kohlberg's stages of Moral Development Developmental Over-Riding Moral Level Principle Rationale Perspective pre-conventional 1: External Law Obey rules and Carrot and Egocentric Morality avoid harm stick 2: Individual Meet immediate Enlightened Individualistic and Instrumental interests of self-interest and relative self and (you scratch my agreement back, I'll obligations scratch yours) conventional 3: Interpersonal Meet social Reputation; Individual with Conformity expectations maintenance of respect to authority and others without a prevailing generalized stereotypes perspective of empathy 4: Social Obey and uphold Institutional Systemic with System laws; integrity; respect to rules contribution to avoiding and regulations; the group schisms individual considered insofar as relevant to the system post-conventional 5: Social Uphold a Social Integration of Contract pluralist system obligation to pluralism via of values within voluntarily formal which certain engage in a mechanisms of absolutes contract to laws and nevertheless provide for contracts persist, such as rights and right to life welfare of all 6: Universal Universal Conviction in Moral Ethics principles of the validity of perspective of human dignity, universal human integrity and respect and ethical and dignity human rights of principles; individuals; the personal validity of dedication social contracts upholds them and laws derive from their coherence with the universal principles
Kohlberg's research was conducted in Mexico, the Bahamas, Taiwan, Indonesia, Turkey, Honduras, India, Nigeria, and Kenya (Schaffer 353) and thus suggests universal ethnic applications of moral stages. …