This study surveyed the professional needs of a randomly chosen 125 English language teachers from Amman (1st and 2nd) directorates of education. By using a close questionnaire, the study revealed different professional needs demanded by EFL teachers which embodied the need for effective organization of the EFL curriculum and welcoming teachers' remarks on it, securing instructional media and facilities for effective English language instruction, raising students' motivation and attitudes towards English language, the need for training courses to mix with native English speaking communities, the need to use appropriate EFL teaching methods, the need to understand the EFL teacher's new roles and the necessity of effective in-service training of English language teachers. The study also highlighted the need to get teachers of English to engage in collaborative learning and be open to critical evaluation of their teaching, to raise their motivation to teach and to provide them with teaching labs to promote natural language learning, reducing class size and the use of co-operative learning and autonomous learning, basing EFL curriculum on the actual needs of students as well as considering their societal and cultural frames. Further, parents should be contacted and their attitudes and those of their children towards learning English should be investigated. Finally, teachers of English should use a wide variety of teaching methods that address the various needs of school students and match their multiple learning styles abandoning, at the same time, traditional methods of teaching.
Key words: professional needs of foreign language teachers, foreign/second language instruction
The professional needs of English language teachers represent an area worthy of investigation as such needs are subject to constant changes and modifications the Jordanian EFL curriculum undergoes. Due to the developments that occur in language teacher preparation nation-wide and around the globe, such professional needs may undergo various changes. More than any time before, language teacher education has started to consider the professional development of the English language teachers for reasons that have to do with the need to equip students with a high communicative competency in English language proficiency.
According to Richards and Farrell (2009), recently language teacher preparation has shifted from focus on training to a focus on teacher development. English language teachers have become more interested in examining the teaching contexts to attain a deeper perception of their work more than just applying theories or commit themselves to certain teaching methods. The final goal is that by doing so the organization where teachers work attains growth, collaboration and learning.
Within the same direction, Peyton (1997) asserted that, first, teacher education must shift from a focus on pre-service training to a focus on lifelong professional development. Second, in stead of separating language teacher preparation into different departments embodying English as a second language, foreign language, bilingual, and immersion, teachers need to be prepared to teach in more than one second language context. Third, rather starting with academic coursework and going to apply educational theory then moving to classroom practice, theory and practice have to be integrated at an earlier stage. Reflecting on the state of foreign language teaching profession, the EFL teaching profession is faced with obstacles represented in increasing enrollments and a shortage of qualified teachers. A shift to emphasis on autonomous learning together with the development of standards for foreign language instruction put a set of new requirements for foreign language teachers. Curtain and Pesola (1994) suggested that foreign language teachers today demand a combination of competencies and background which may be unprecedented in the preparation of language teachers. They suggested that strong professional development is essential.
Focusing on what the teachers should know and do throughout their practice of teaching, Fly Jones, Palincsar, Ogle and Carr (1987) asserted that, first, the teacher should have a thorough knowledge about the content. Second, a skill in assessing the prior knowledge and learning needs of the students should be possessed. An analysis of the text as well as the instructional material should be carried out by the teacher to achieve better use of them in the instructional effort. Finally, the teacher should show understanding of the thinking processes necessary for content learning and utilization and to demonstrate ability in matching such processes to effective presentation skills.
Locally in Jordan, the EFL context is unique in the sorts of the professional needs of the large community of English language teachers. This EFL context is subject to constant changes and shifts in the EFL curriculum and the teaching methods subscribed to by teachers of English. On the other hand, this Jordanian EFL field echoes developments that happen at the international EFL theatre and the country's societal, economic and cultural goals. Recently, teachers academy together in collaboration with Columbia University was opened to serve the professional development of teachers among whom are English language teachers. The recent change toward knowledge economy has also created a set of challenges and needs for teachers of English among the population of the teachers in this country.
Statement of the problem
The teaching of English in Jordan dates back to the establishment of the Kingdom of Jordan. The English language instructional field has seen various educational reform initiatives which intended to create a change and improvement in teacher's teaching of English. Various changes have taken place in English language instruction in Jordan and elsewhere in the world represented locally, for example, by various initiatives to develop the educational process. Teacher education is at the centre of this development movement. These might have left together with other factors demands for effective English language instruction and the need to revise teacher preparation to provide effective teacher education. The EFL instructional theatre of Jordan has witnessed an increasing demand for effective English language teaching. State-wide the pressure on English language teachers escalates due to demands for quality English language learning as the country enters in economic and political environment that call for rigorous EFL instruction. Teachers of English might have their distinct professional needs which need investigation. Therefore, by using a close questionnaire, the present study investigates the types of professional needs of English language teachers in the hope to develop the quality of teaching offered to Jordanian students and alleviate complains raised by students and by their parents regarding the low performance of their children in English language learning.
Q1: What are the professional needs of EFL teachers in the field of teaching English in Amman first and second directorates of education?
Q2: What are the professional needs of English language teachers in terms of English language subject matter?
Q3: What are the professional needs of English language teachers in terms of English language instruction?
Q4: What is suggested to address the professional needs of English language teachers in the above two directorates of education?
Significance of the study
The importance of this study results from its interest into the professional needs of English language teachers in Amman First/Second Directorates of Education. This is helpful in getting policy makers and supervisors as well as teacher trainers aware of such professional needs. At the same time, this would enable in tailoring special needs professional development programs which could contribute to the development of the teaching quality of the English language teachers. This study also helps the improvement of teacher's teaching quality as supervisors could be guided by such professional needs when direct visits to schools are scheduled and planned. It is hoped that the Ministry of Education considers such professional needs especially when designing its EFL curricula and training to its English language teachers.
Limitations of the study
This study is limited to a sample of English language teachers who teach English in the first and second directorates of education in the capital city of Amman. It is also limited to the period of implementation of the study which took place during the first semester of the academic year 2008-2009. The research method is the close questionnaire to which three open questions were attached.
As far as the professional needs of English language teachers are concerned, Fillmore and Snow (2000) asserted that teachers need an understanding of educational linguistics, that is, how language impacts teaching and learning and also to do their work effectively. They argue that knowledge about language enhances teachers' practice by helping them in the teaching of literacy and in working with language learners. These researchers focused on principles and structures for professional development that relate to practicing teachers which can help them to get language related knowledge and to overcome their challenges by providing effective professional development chances. They differentiated between five teacher functions at the heart of language teaching. First is teacher as communicator who needs to be able to communicate effectively and possess strategies to comprehend what students say. Second is that the teacher acts as an educator. The teacher is responsible for subject area instruction and should also select educational materials and provide learning opportunities that encourage English language learner's learning. Teachers act as evaluators whose decisions have important consequences for students. Teachers are also looked at as educated people by demonstrating information about language. Finally, teachers act as social agents by playing a central role in socializing children to the views, norms and communication patterns.
Fillmore and Snow (2000) suggested that teachers should have knowledge about a number of topics related to oral and written language, including the primary units of language, regular and irregular forms in English, vocabulary development, dialect regularity, academic English, language acquisition, English spelling, types of rhetorical structure, correctness and quality in writing and text comprehensibility. They suggested courses that allow teachers to learn basic information related to language which embrace language and linguistics, language and cultural multiplicity, sociolinguistics, second language teaching and learning, language development, academic discourse language, and text analysis within educational contexts.
Gandara, Maxwell-Jolly and Driscoll (2005) offered a number of insights for more effective teaching in the classroom. Their study revealed that teachers focused on what they could do to improve student learning and did not blame students and their families for low achievement. Communication with students and their families was of greatest importance to teachers. Teachers mentioned communication, understanding, and connecting with students as well as their parents as the major challenge they came across. Secondary teachers expressed concern about students' ability to meet advancement and graduation requirements in high school. Teachers are frustrated by the wide range of English language and academic levels found in their classrooms. Teachers felt they were lacking the tools they needed to teach particularly appropriate assessment materials so as to diagnose students' needs and measure their language learning performance.
The more preparation teachers had for working with English language learners, the more able they were to find out severe challenges in instructional programs, services as well as resources for these learners.
De Segovia and Hardison (2008) reported that teachers complained of weakness in language proficiency, inadequate resources, insufficient training and professional support. Other concerns included methodological training, the disparity between curriculum policy and classroom practice and that policy statements tended to be utopian together with the lack of smooth evolvement of the shift from teacher centered into learner centered approach of EFL instruction, mentoring support and the cost of in-service training for language teachers, lack of contact with English language outside the classroom borders, lack of interest on the part of learners to learn English and lack of value together with other problems such as teacher's confidence.
De Segovia (2008)'s study revealed issues in Asian contexts similar to those in Thailand. These issues included the economic benefits of globalization as the main driving force existing behind English teaching, concern for EFL teachers' English proficiency and their methodological training, and the gap between curriculum policy and classroom teaching practice in terms of teaching principles. The study indicated the lack of the smooth movement from teacher centeredness to learner centeredness. The study also indicated the lack of contact with the English language outside the classroom environment.
Darasawang (2009) reflected on the recent change from teacher training to teacher development. Referring to Edge (2005), he pointed out that currently teachers are not concerned with the application of certain theory or theories, but to be more responsible and ready to get their teaching practices be examined to gain more awareness and further development in their teaching and by doing so learning, growth and collaboration can by gained.
Methods and procedures
The researcher used a close questionnaire to which a number of open ended questions were attached to investigate the EFL teacher's professional needs.
Subjects of the study
The subjects of the present study were 125 English language teachers who taught at Amman first and second Directorates of Education in the first semester 2008-2009. All responded to the professional needs questionnaire.
Description of the questionnaire
The professional needs questionnaire, which was used in this study, was developed with reference to the relevant literature, the author's experience as a university professor and previous teacher trainer of English and through contact with teachers of English. It was also based on the intuitions of professional diploma students who were taught by the author in a previous semester. The questionnaire was subdivided into two sections: one concerned the professional needs of EFL teachers and another which consisted of open questions attached.
The questionnaire included items like the need to be prepared to practice the teaching profession and following this up during the EFL teachers' in-service training, the need to use the suitable instructional methods, effective organization of the EFL curricula and welcoming teachers' notes on them, securing facilities and media for effective EFL instruction, developing the relation with the English supervisor, the need to link quality of instruction with learner's success in learning, motivating students to learn English and its culture, the need to increase students' abilities to use English, the need to benefit from scientific research in the field of EFL instruction, the sufficiency of giving the teacher a training through one single workshop during the service and the need to use up-to-date training strategies by the teacher trainers.
Other items covered the need for continuous training of English language teachers, the need for external courses administered to EFL learners to engage with native speakers of the English language, the need for in-service teacher training that contributes positively to improve learner's learning, the need for knowledge about English language system (phonics, syntax, vocabulary, etc), the need to recognize similarities and differences between Arabic and English, the demand for the identification of the modern language learning theories and development in cognitive domain of human learning, the need for creating an effective environment for language learning, the need to use diverse teaching methods to get learners engage effectively in the language learning process, the need to use language learning resources and technology to enhance language learning, the need to know about the sequential nature of the EFL curriculum, the need to link between the skills and knowledge in the EFL curriculum and the language learning process, the need to use effective language learning evaluation appropriate to the content of the EFL curriculum, the need to get the teacher to research into his or her students' learning, the need to understand the teacher's new role represented in acting as a facilitator, guide and director not as the only expert in the language classroom, the need to consider the different levels of teachers of English and their pace in achieving the goals of the EFL curriculum, the need to develop strategic teaching in teaching English and the need to learn from other more experienced teachers. Among the open ended items in the questionnaire was one on the major needs in the field of language, the field of teaching methods, the field of continuing professional development and others the respondent could provide in relation to the purpose of this study.
Piloting the study
Before the author administered the questionnaire to the respondents, he sent a number of the questionnaire forms to ten EFL teachers to respond to and complete and urged them to give their feedback on any of the items in terms of clarity and relevance. In light of the referred copies, the researcher revised the questionnaire and later conducted the study.
Validity of the instrument
The research questionnaire which the author used in this study was validated by 6 university specialists of all ranks assistants, associates and professors, one teacher trainer in the field of teaching and training and five school supervisors. All agreed that the questionnaire was appropriate for the purpose of this study. Some questions were revised and amended while few others were added based on suggestions of the validity jury of this study.
Implementation of the study
A permission was taken from the Ministry of Education before the distribution of the questionnaires. Then the researcher contacted the target directorates of education. The researcher visited the schools to distribute the questionnaire forms. The researcher used to clarify and respond to questions raised by participants especially in the piloting stage.
Reliability of the instrument
To ensure that the instrument is reliable, twenty five EFL teachers out of the above sample of the study responded to the questionnaire to achieve consistency of the instrument. Using Cronbach Aplah reliability coefficient, the computed reliability was .87 which is high and fitted the purpose of this study.
Different statistical measures were used in the analysis of the findings of this study which included frequencies, means, and standard deviations. As to the responses on the open questions attached to the questionnaire, these were analyzed by cutting off unnecessary data, reducing responses to look for patterns and themes that emerge from the data of this study. To facilitate comparisons among the different items in this study, a scale was developed which included three categories:
* If the degree of the professional need ranges between 1.0 and 2.33, it was conysidered low.
* If the degree of the professional need ranges between 2.34 and 3.67, it was considered moderate.
* If the degree of the professional need ranges between 3.68 and 5.0, it was considered high.
Findings of the study
This section presents the types of professional needs in the above two directorates of education in the academic year 2008-2009. Relevant professional needs are displayed in the tables below.
According to the table above, a number of demands received high mean scores. These embodied the effective organization of the EFL curriculum and welcoming teachers' remarks on it, securing media for instruction and related facilities, the enhancement of learner's ability in using English language, effective EFL teacher preparation, increasing student's motivation and improving their attitudes towards English language and its native speakers, engaging teachers in outside training programs by mixing them with native English speakers, training them on effective EFL teaching methods, understanding the new roles of the teacher of English and the provision with effective in-service training of English language teachers.
The above table also shows that though most items received high mean scores, but according to the division in this study into most and least frequent items, the relationship with parents, that teachers engage into action research, the development of strategic English language teaching, linking both evaluation and instruction to the success of students, giving in-service training to English language teachers and undertaking comparisons between mother tongue (Arabic) and target language ( English) were not seen as important by the subjects of this study as the case of items in the preceding table.
Relevant findings on professional needs derived from responses to open questions attached to the questionnaire in this study
A number of open questions were attached to the professional needs questionnaire brought the following professional needs as displayed in the table below.
According to the table above, the provision with modern teaching media and resources, the need for EFL training courses to improve the teaching performance, the essential provision with EFL teaching labs, the necessary improvement of teacher's social, economic and financial status, the need for outside training courses to mix with native English speaking communities were the most eminent among the professional needs expressed by the participants in this study. Most of these needs intersect with similar ones obtained via the questionnaire in this study.
EFL teachers' professional needs in subject matter competency
The EFL teachers' professional needs in the English language as subject matter competency are represented in the findings in the table below.
Provision with cassettes and CDs for teachers of English, using computer to learn how to speak English, the need to enroll teachers of English in advanced courses in speaking English appropriately, and finally getting both teachers and students mix with native speakers of English language.
The professional needs of EFL teachers in
English language instruction The following table demonstrates the professional needs in English language teaching.
The above table on the different language teaching needs of the English language teachers echoes the need to use different teaching methods to teach English. It also reflects the need to vary these English language teaching methods to fit multiple learning needs of classroom English language learners. According to the results of this study, this demands various recent and modern teaching media such as the educational computer technology and other related media. This is best done when not imposing any teaching methods by, for example, school supervisors, on teachers of English to follow. One important need reflected on in this field is the co-operation of experienced teachers with less experienced teachers to communicate new methods to them and give advice when necessary to aid less experienced teachers to effectively teach English.
Suggestions for the improvement of the professional development of English language teachers
A number of suggestions were given by the participated teachers with respect to their professional development, see table below.
The suggestions provided by the subjects of this study centre around the essential focus on learner autonomy and the encouragement to the learner to express his needs and opinions in learning English, training supervisors of English and their teachers on recent teaching methods, developing the relationships with students, welcoming teacher's notes on the EFL curriculum, establishing clubs to improve teaching English and situating the teaching of English within a Jordanian educational context were among the suggestions to improve the teaching of English.
The present study sought to collect data related to the kinds of professional needs demanded by teachers of English at Amman first and second directorates of education.
After the statistical analysis and the insurance of the validity and the reliability of the instrument, the study findings brought massive and multiple professional needs of English language teachers. This study reflected the different language teaching needs of the English language teachers in the above directorates of education in Amman. The following list points to the most recurrent professional needs of EFL teachers in the various governmental directorates in Amman.
--effectively organizing EFL curriculum and welcoming teachers' remarks on it
--Securing instructional media and facilities for effective English language instruction
--Enhancing learner's ability in using English language
--The preparation to practice the teaching profession and in-service following it up
--Increasing students' motivation and attitudes towards this language and its native speakers
--The need for training courses to mix with native English speaking communities
--The need to use appropriate EFL teaching methods
--The need to understand the EFL teacher's new role represented in acting as a facilitator, counselor, director and not the only expert in the classroom The need for effective in-service training that contributes to the improvement of the English language learning inside the classroom.
Filmore and Snow (2000) emphasized that English language teachers need an understanding related to educational linguistics. They also highlighted the significance of the professional development of English language teachers and that teacher's roles needed to be varied to fit the different instructional situations.
Any professional development might not attain its purposes unless teachers' voices are considered. With respect to the need to welcome teacher's remarks on the design of the EFL curriculum, Carless (1998) called for getting teachers have a thorough knowledge about the principles as well as the practices of any proposed curricular changes as the teachers are going to be responsible for the related implementation of such a curriculum.
This study echoed the need to use different teaching methods to teach English. It echoed the need to vary these English language teaching methods to fit multiple learning needs of classroom students. According to the results of this study, this demands various recent and modern teaching media such as the recent educational computer technology and other media. This is best done when no imposition on teachers with any teaching methods by, for example, school supervisors, on teachers of English to follow. One important need reflected on in this field is the co-operation of experienced teachers with less experienced teachers to communicate new methods to them and give advice when necessary to aid them to effectively teach English. Gandara et al. (2005) called for more preparation of teachers to help them in their work with English language learners and to enable them to find out challenges in instructional programs, services as well as resources for these learners. Teachers in their study wanted professional development on teaching English language learners. Teachers chose a number of things to improve the quality of their instruction which included more paraprofessional help, more time to teach students, additional time for collaboration with colleagues and better materials to teach English. Alkhawaldeh (2005) called on teachers of English to discuss among themselves the teaching methods they use in the classroom to reach a shared vision with respect to teaching English.
This study also highlighted different professional models known in the world's language teacher education literature such as the essential need for collaboration among these language teachers to benefit each other professionally and so could continue learning from each other whilst serving at public schools in Jordan. According to Richards and Farrell (2009), recent language teacher preparation has shifted its focus from training to teacher development. The result of this direction, therefore, is the growth and collaboration of teachers who can learn from each other.
Also, the study stressed the need for teachers of English and their learners to receive a native language input for that this is highly focused on by them to attain a native-like proficiency in the English language. Alkhawaldeh (2005) called for using methods of instruction that call for natural English language acquisition to occur. This necessitates natural material to be presented to the learners.
The broad spectrum of professional needs of English language teachers reflected how much needs to be investigated and gathered to improve the EFL instructional process in the country. What is needed and what should all those who are concerned with the instructional process do including universities and the Ministry of Education together with the local community to improve the instructional process and maintain a high and quality teaching conduct among interested teachers. The professional needs collected in this study echo the size of the challenges EFL teachers encounter.
The study outlined blame directed to several parties responsible for the professional needs which English language teachers demand. The blame was directed to the Ministry of Education for crowded classes, for lack of sufficient training, for school administration, for syllabus designers, former teachers of English, teachers who still use traditional methods of teaching and finally children's parents.
This study revealed several professional needs Jordanian English language teachers wanted. The following are a number of recommendation to improve the professional performance of English language teachers in Jordan.
The need to encourage EFL teachers to learn from each other's experiences where this can be achieved by getting less experienced teachers to attend lessons provided by experienced teachers and be open to critical evaluation of their teaching performance by their more capable peers.
Constant and needs-based in-service training should be carried out for English language teachers to ensure they keep up with the most recent teaching methods and to raise their motivation to teach.
Providing teachers of English with necessary teaching resources and gaining them on e-learning as well as providing them with teaching labs to let students to study English language in a natural environment free from stress and the dictatorship of the teacher.
A harmony between teachers on foundational grades and those on high grade instruction should be reached as the latter usually complain that low grade students suffer from weak foundation in English.
That the class size should be reduced to the level that enables the teacher to use modern teaching methods such as co-operative learning and autonomous learning.
EFL curriculum should be based on the actual levels and needs of the students and their societal and cultural frames should also be considered.
Linkage between pre-service teacher education and in-service teacher education should be guaranteed for that some teachers feel a gap between what they received at university and school teaching.
Parents should be contacted and their attitudes as well as those of their children towards learning English should be investigated.
Teachers of English should use a wide variety of teaching methods that address the various needs of school students and match their multiple learning styles.
Considering the different cultural and geographical areas in designing EFL curriculum for that not all students in Jordan can be expected to achieve the goals of the curriculum at the same time and within the same speed.
The need to abandon traditional methods of teaching English and, alternatively, use recent methods that can appeal to the learner's needs in foreign language learning.
Alkhawaldeh, A. (2005). Jordanian English language teachers' awareness of language learning theories and teaching methods, Mutah lil-buhuth Wad-Dirasat, 20, 7, 25-55.
Carless, D. (1998). A case study of curriculum implementation in Hong Kong. System, 26 (3), 353-368.
Darasawang, p. (2009) Professional development for language teachers. Retrieved on 20 January 2009 Available at : file://C:Docum ents20%and20%Setting\Administrator\Deskto p\New20%Folder\ELT20 ...
De Segovia, L. and Hardison, M. (2008) Implementing education reform: EFL teachers' perspectives. ELT J, 63 (2), 154-162.
Curtain, H., & Pesola, C. (1994). Languages and children: Making the match. White Plains, NY: Longman.
Fillmore, L.W., & Snow, C. (2000). What teachers need to know about language. McHenry, IL, and Washington, DC: Delta Systems and Center for Applied Linguistics.
Fly Jones, B., Palincsar, A., Ogle, D. and Carr, E. (1987). Strategic teaching and learning: Cognitive instruction in the content areas. Alexandria: North Central Regional educational Laboratory.
Gandara, P., Maxwell-Jolly, J., and Driscolla, A. (2005). Listening to teachers of English Language learners: A Survey of California's teachers' challenges, experiences, and professional development needs. Santa Barbara, CA: UC Linguistic Minority Research Institute.
Peyton, K. (1997). Professional Development of Foreign Language Teachers. A report prepared with funding from the Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Dept. of Education.
Richards, J. and Farrell, T. (2009). Professional Development for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
DR. AHMAD ALKHAWALDEH
Associate Professor in TEFL
University of Jordan
Table (1) The professional needs of Amman 1st and 2nd Directorates English language teachers Professional needs expressed by EFL teachers Mean Std. Deviation --Organizing EFL curriculum and welcoming 4.54 .678 teachers' remarks on it --Securing instructional media and 4.50 .691 facilities for effective English language instruction --Enhancing learner's ability in using 4.44 .677 English language --The preparation to practice the teaching 4.40 .783 profession and in-service following it up --Increasing students' motivation and 4.38 .849 attitudes towards this language and its native speakers -The need for outside training courses to 4.37 .903 mix with native English speaking communities --The need to use appropriate EFL teaching 4.37 .724 methods --The need to understand the EFL teacher's 4.36 .817 new role represented in acting as a facilitator, counselor, director and not the only expert in the classroom. --The need for effective in-service training 4.36 .745 that contributes to the improvement of the English language learning inside the classroom --The need to create and manage a suitable 4.34 .763 environment for English language learning --The need to use multiple teaching 4.34 .772 strategies to enable the learners to engage actively in the English language learning process --Considering learners' multiple levels, 4.33 .693 their pace in achieving EFL curriculum goals --Developing the relationship with the EFL 4.32 .768 supervisor --The need to link the skills and knowledge 4.30 .730 between the EFL curriculum and English language instruction --The need to know about the English 4.29 .824 language system ( phonics, syntax, vocabulary, etc,) --Learning from more experienced EFL 4.28 .799 teachers in teaching English --Using different learning and technology 4.27 .910 resources to reinforce English language learning --Using in-service training strategies that 4.25 .886 appear modern by teacher trainers --Knowing recent language acquisition 4.24 .766 theories and the development in the human cognitive domain --Identifying the sequential nature of the 4.24 .766 English language curriculum --Developing the relation with parents 4.22 .829 regarding their children's language learning 4.21 .864 The need for continuous in-service training on professional development strategies --Benefiting from research results in the 4.18 .787 EFL field --Using appropriate evaluation methods 4.18 .874 conducive to the content of the EFL curriculum --Developing strategic instruction in 4.13 .740 teaching English by English language teachers --Realizing similarities and differences 4.11 .909 between Arabic as mother tongue and English as a foreign language --Linking instructional quality to students' 4.08 1.052 success in learning English --Developing EFL instructional process 3.98 .988 through teacher's carrying out action research related to his/her students' English language learning --Giving the EFL teacher a single in-service 3.15 1.385 training workshop Table (2) Professional needs belonging to English language teachers in this study No Professional needs Frequency % 1 Provision of basic teaching items such as 1 1.25 teacher's books and teaching facilities 2 The provision with modern teaching media 8 10 and resources 3 The need for EFL training courses to 7 8.75 improve the teaching performance 4 Training on teaching strategies 1 1.25 5 Provision with EFL teaching labs 5 6.25 6 Receiving native English speakers at the 1 1.25 classroom 7 Enhancing English language learners' 1 1.25 motivation 8 Provision with modem technology to teach 1 1.25 English 9 The need for a linkage between curricular 1 1.25 theoretical material and life out of the classroom 10 Professionalizing EFL teaching 1 1.25 11 Improving teacher's social, economic and 6 7.50 financial status 12 Training EFL teachers on real teaching 1 1.25 situations not memorizing theoretical stuff 13 The continuous communication between the 1 1.25 curricula directorate and the EFL practitioners in the field 14 The need to get excellent teachers to give 1 1.25 model lesson on teaching English to less experienced teachers 15 Provision with flash cards 1 1.25 16 Minimizing the teacher's teaching load and 6 7.50 the extra duties 17 The need for outside training courses to 4 5 mix with native English speaking communities 18 Developing the relationship with the EFL 1 1.25 supervisor 19 Getting higher degrees in the field of 1 1.25 specialism 20 The need to engage the teacher's in the 1 1.25 planning of the EFL curriculum 21 The need to understand the new role of the 1 1.25 EFL teacher represented in acting as a facilitator not as the only expert 22 Improving the teacher's EFL communication 1 1.25 skills 23 Guaranteeing fairness by the Ministry of 1 1.25 Education in enrolling teacher's in higher diploma programs 24 Offering an effective environment for 1 1.25 teaching English Table (3) EEL teachers' professional needs in the competency in English language 1 Need for the use of the English language in real life 1 1.25 situations 2 Training on improving English language 1 1.25 3 Facilitating the listening skill by students 1 1.25 4 The need to have a language lab at school 5 6.25 5 Mixing with native speakers of English language as 5 6.25 teachers (for example, through the British council) for teachers and students 6 Conducting study tours to native English speaking 1 1.25 countries 7 Emphasis on language, grammar and writing and caring 1 1.25 about students' spelling 8 Emphasis on communication in English 1 1.25 9 Provision with cassettes and CDs teachers should be 3 3.75 provided with 10 Provision with correct pronunciation of English 1 1.25 language 11 Teacher's should be enrolled in advanced courses in 2 2.50 speaking English appropriately 12 Provision with references and dictionaries 1 1.25 13 Use of E-learning technology 1 1.25 14 Offering teachers' clubs to practice English 1 1.25 15 Enrolling teachers' in higher studies at universities 1 1.25 16 Students should practice using the English language 2 2.50 17 Students should accept the English language teaming 1 1.25 18 Improving teacher's English language skills 2 2.50 19 Provision with native English speaking teaming 1 1.25 material 20 Conducting courses in listening, speaking and 1 1.25 pronunciation 21 Using computer to learn how to speak English 2 2.50 22 Learners need to talk with native speakers of English 1 1.25 23 Audio-visual learning media 1 1.25 24 Emphasis on correct pronunciation 1 1.25 25 Avoiding comparing between Arabic and English in 1 1.25 learning the latter 26 Emphasizing learner based English language learning 1 1.25 27 Continual contact with parents l 1.25 28 Learner life based language learning 1 1.25 29 Electronic EFL curricula 1 1.25 30 The model use of the English language in the EFL 1 1.25 classroom 31 More knowledge about the language system 1 1.25 32 Specifying a full day for learning English to foster 1 1.25 use of it in real life communication 33 Strengthening courses in English language through 1 1.25 outside tours 34 Changing the EFL curriculum 1 1.25 Table (4) Professional needs in English language instruction No Professional needs in English language Frequency % teaching 1 The need to acknowledge the personal 1 1.25 preferences to teaching methods of the different teachers of English 2 Training courses on modern teaching methods 17 21.25 3 Provision with modern teaching media to 6 7.5 develop teaching English 4 Not imposing a teaching method on the 2 2.5 teacher of English because in the field he or she is able to decide what teaching method that fits the instructional context 5 Highlighting grammar, writing, reading 1 1.25 comprehension and speaking 6 Application of what is taken at training 1 1.25 courses into the classroom instruction 7 Presenting model lessons by experienced 4 5 teachers to less experienced teachers (mentoring) 8 Benefiting from the educational television 1 1.25 9 Training on teaching the four language 1 1.25 skills 10 Focusing on co-operative learning 2 2.5 11 Holding continuous training workshops where 2 2.5 teachers exchange experiences and use English 12 Raising the teacher's awareness of the 1 1.25 different teaching methods that fit different teaching situations 13 Enabling supervisors to apply these 1 1.25 teaching methods and encouraging them to consider the teacher's teaching conditions 14 The need to vary the teaching methods to 2 2.5 fit the different Learners' levels of learning 15 Offering a suitable teaching environment 2 2.5 16 Consulting experienced teachers regarding 1 1.25 most effective teaching methods and applying this by less experienced mentoring) 17 Looking at the experience of teaching 1 1.25 English as a native language in native English speaking countries 18 A class size that fits effective EFL 3 3.75 instruction 19 Avoiding memorization as a learning/ 1 1.25 teaching method 20 Developing the teaching methods used by old 1 1.25 experienced teachers 21 Alerting students and their parents and 2 2.50 school administration about the significance of varying the teaching methods according to the teaching situations. 22 Varying teaching methods 2 2.50 Table (5) Suggestions to improve the instructional performance of English language teachers Suggestions frequency % 1- Giving incentives at the level of 1 1.25 educational directorates to distinguished EFL teachers 2 Giving training workshops by specialists in 1 1.25 the teaching of English 3 Activating the role of the teacher's clubs 1 1.25 4 Avoiding sudden changes to the lesson plans 1 1.25 and evaluation material 5 Training supervisors on modem teaching 1 1.25 methods and techniques 6 Welcoming the suggestions of teachers 1 1.25 regarding the curriculum 7 Giving students the opportunity to express 1 1.25 their personal views pertaining to their learning of English 8 Teaching English should be situated within 1 1.25 the Jordanian social structure 9 Emphasis on learner autonomy in English 1 1.25 language leaming 10 Formulating new legislations and laws to 1 1.25 guarantee an effective instructional process 11 Strengthening relationship between English 1 1.25 language teacher and his or her students to overcome fear of the language learning…