Academic journal article
By Ziadat, Ayed H.; Abu-Nair, Natheer S.; Sameha, Mansour A. Abu
Journal of Instructional Psychology , Vol. 38, No. 2
Importance and background of the study
The great changes that hit these aspects, (technological, economical, cognitive, social and cultural world) require the transformation of universities mission, to cope up with these changes, and these universities have to solve the problems that faces the society in the areas of production and services and the preparation of scientific researches and studies submitting them to policymakers covering all parts of life (Sheldan. 2005).
The Undergraduate is the most important stage in which the learner obtains maturity, mental, cognitive, cultural and physical new features and awareness, in addition to having a structured process aimed at think learner behavior and trends of psychological, social and political development through a comprehensive review to correct the misconception, and guide the deviant behavior for better, and the development of learner awareness of his society and it's surrounded problems and challenges to prevent and prosperity came to the (Sheldan 2005).
Formation of brains can be the center of the educational process in educational institutions. Schools and university are required to make effort, time and money to achieve quality in education. And develop loping the learning environment to encourage students towards scientific thinking and creativity, and the use of thinking skills and a non-typical solving problems issue, and the use of skills for self-learning and asking open-ended questions in front of students and to move through various levels of mental and thinking skills (Shehatah, 2008).
Human thinking is a complex mental process, it consists of a set of mental processes operations as the comparison, classification, organization, systematization, abstraction, generalization, concretization, analysis, and reasoning, and types of thinking are thinking asymptotic includes thinking about knowledge, and divergent thinking, and reasoning, and thinking intuitive, and thinking over knowledge--beyond the knowledge--and critical thinking (Altartori & Alekdah, 2007).
The reasonability is making the brain as a major governor and controller on critical thinking to destroy the unreasonable, with keeping what is reasonable. Brain is a tool for production of theoretical structure or it is a rule of mental activity derived from a special culture, and this tool consist of system or rules of no feeling through cultural practice to finally form the knowledge of a culture, and reasonability help to build human freethinker (Aljabri, 1989).
Rational education known as a method of education includes lessons planned meticulously. And is presented to students in a sequential manner aiming to teach students the skills of rational thinking. Enabling them to solve their problems effectively and sequentially, also to teach them coping strategies to reduce emotional suffering that they may face, but rational thinking is defined as that kind of thinking that helps people to live longer and live a happy life, and leads to adaptive behavior and functionality of effective (Ghaith, 2004).
Teaching of thinking is a central issue in teaching as a process to improve learning outcomes, and with improving the teaching plans for developing processes, skills, mental, cognitive, and operations beyond the knowledge of students. The crucial issue in education is to adopt a new scheme in our educational institutions focusing on thinking training giving the students the ability to confront their everyday problems so they can make good decisions, and this elevated shift in developing teaching in our educational institutions will put the Arab world within the global competition. Thinking considers as ability that can grow and improve, so the person who teaches thinking must have the thinking skills of knowledge and beyond knowledge.
The teaching of thinking requires a new curriculum and new programs that take into account the training thinking skills as well as a revolution in the evaluation activities, methods and tools, as activities continue to impact on learning outcomes and strategies. …