In-Service Science Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

The age of global change need more effective instruction, not only student make themselves to supported this age, but also teachers should be reacted their knowledge in the complexity. Key aspects of the complexity are widely used term pedagogical content knowledge, which incorporates the blending of content and pedagogy into an understanding of how particular topics, problems, or issues are organized, represented, and adapted to the diverse interests and abilities of learners and presented for instruction (Shulman, 1987). Teacher should have declarative knowledge of the content and pedagogy for authority and supports the idea that teaching is a profession (Ball et. al, 2008, p. 404).

The key component of PCK, is the knowledge of students' understanding, conception, and misconception of lesson. PCK can help teachers to interpret and shape students' learning actions as well as to effective instruction (Magnusson et. al, 1998). Shulman (1986, p. 9) introduced PCK as a specific category of knowledge to the dimension of subject matter knowledge for teaching. Also, PCK is namely distributed, the knowledge base for teaching. Teacher knowledge was to be organized into printed formats. They should be included seven categories for effective science instruction (Shulman, 1987, p. 8).

* Content knowledge

* General pedagogical knowledge, with special reference to those broad principles and strategies of classroom management and organization that appear to transcend subject matter

* Curriculum knowledge, with particular grasp of the materials and programs that serve as "tools of the trade" for teachers

* Pedagogical content knowledge, that special amalgam of content and pedagogy that is uniquely the province of teachers, their own special form of professional understanding

* Knowledge of learners and their characteristics

* Knowledge of educational contexts, ranging from the working of the group or classroom, the governance and financing of school districts, to the character of communities and cultures

* Knowledge of educational ends, purposes, and values, and their philosophical and historical grounds

PCK can be implied as a transformation of subject matter knowledge that can be used effectively and flexibly in the communication process between teachers and students during classroom practices (van Driel et. al., 1998; Eilks and Markic, 2011; Halai and Khan, 2011). Teachers should know and how they should teach their students by focusing on subject matter, content, and incorporated pedagogy to achieve classroom. This conception can be described as a transformation of teacher knowledge from a variety of domains of knowledge, which includes subject matter knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, and knowledge about content (Botha and Reddy, 2011). PCK is argued to be a useful concept in the sense that it has opened up thinking about the distinctive forms of professional knowledge of teachers in different subjects (Abell, 2008; Bausmith and Barry, 2011) about the knowledge, teaching skills, and abilities of teachers.

The quality of teachers and the teacher education process has important consequences for improvement in science education. Shulman (1987) believed that professional development in teacher education should combine knowledge in content and pedagogy to more effectively prepare and develop science teachers (Kaltakci, 2011), also engage science teachers to understand about nature of science (Zeidler and Lederman, 1989; AbdEl-Khalick and Lederman, 2000a; Abd-El-Khalick and Lederman, 2000b; Abd-El-Khalick, 2005; Abd-El-Khalick and Akerson, 2004). PCK includes knowing which teaching approaches fit the content and how elements of the content can be arranged for an effective science teaching. The Institute of Teaching Promotion for Science and Technology (IPST) launched project leader teacher to change in science and mathematics instruction. …