Examining Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem Levels of Turkish Students in Gaining Identity against Role during Conflict Periods

Article excerpt

In this research, university students' psychological well being and self-esteem levels are investigated in terms of a number of variables. The sample in this study is composed of 382 university students. To gather the data for this study, the Subjective Information Form, Psychological Well-Being Scale and Self-Esteem Scale are used. T tests and one-way analysis of variance are used for the independent groups to determine the difference between variables when analyzing the research data. The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient is used to find out whether there is a linear relationship between university students' psychological well-being and their self-esteem scores. The research findings are that there is a statistically significant difference in the sub dimensions of the Psychological Well-Being Scale according to the university students' genders. However, a statistically significant difference between genders is not found in the scores obtained from Self-Esteem Scale. Again, it is revealed that there is a significant difference between the university students' psychological well being and self-esteem levels in terms of their internet connection period and their participation in social clubs. In addition, it is determined that there is a positive correlation between the self-acceptance dimension of the psychological well being scale and the self-esteem scores. The results are discussed in accordance with the related literature and presents suggestions for further research.

Keywords: Psychological Well-Being, Self-respect, Internet Addiction, Personality

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In the 21st century, rapid changes and developments have affected people's lives both positively and negatively. While people try to get used to themselves into this case, they often ignore their own general well-being, particularly at university, as a place in which adolescents study which creates an anxiety for the youth who will administrate the community in the future. The concept of psychological well-being and its relation with gender differences, social relations, internet addiction, self-respect and some other factors has therefore become an increasingly important topic for researchers.

Research into psychological well-being is focused on cultural differences (Diener & Diener, 1995; Kwan, Bond, & Singelis, 1997), individual differences (Sheldon & Niemiec, 2006; Wissing & Van Eeden, 2002), changes in psychological well-being through life span (Blanchflower & Oswald, 2008; Kim & Kim, 2009; Shields & Wheatley, 2005), gender differences due to gender stereotypes (Mills, Grasmick, Morgan, & Wenk, 1992; Roothman, Kirsten, & Wissing, 2003), self-respect (Betton, 2001; Tajfel, 1981; Tuzgol-Dost, 2004), characteristics of personality (McCullough, Emmons, & Tsang, 2002; Ziskis, 2010) and internet addiction (Caplan, 2007; Dallery & Glenn, 2005; Glenn & Dallery, 2007; Morahan-Martin & Schumacher, 2000; Weiser, 2001).

On the one hand, social support is believed to decrease psychological distress and the levels of depression, while enhancing subjective well-being (Ensel & Lin, 1991; Holahan & Moos, 1981; Turner, 1981; VanderZee, Buunk, & Sanderman, 1997; Winefield, Winefield, & Tiggemann, 1992). In studies in Taiwan and China, receiving emotional support from spouses and children is found to be positively associated with psychological well-being (Chen, 2001; Chi & Chou; 2001; Hermalin, Ofstedal, & Chang, 1996; Silverman, Hecht, McMilin, & Chang, 2008). However, emotional support from daughters-in-law exerts a stronger effect on mental health than other family relations in Taiwan. The receipt of material and instrumental support from daughters, sons and friends contributes to an individual's psychological well-being (Silverman, Hecht, McMilin, & Chang, 2008).

To examine this aspect, Holahan and Moos (1981) conducted a study to investigate the relationship between psychological distress and social support. …