Adolescent Norms of for the MAACL-R6

Article excerpt

Responding to the need for brief, reliable, valid, and readable self-report instruments for measuring mood in young adolescents and low-reading-level adults, the reliability and validity of a modified version of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List-Revised (MAACL-R; Zuckerman & Lubin, 1985) have been investigated. The scoring key retained only those adjectives on the five analytically derived MAACL-R scales, Anxiety, Depression, Hostility, Positive Affect, and Sensation Seeking, and the two composite scales, Dysphoria (sum of Anxiety, Depression, and Hostility) and PASS (sum of Positive Affect and Sensation Seeking), that were found to be at or below the sixth-grade reading level on an empirical index (Dale & O'Rourke, 1981). This adaptation (the MAACL-R6) was found to have adequate reliability and validity when applied to rescored MAACL-R results for referred and nonreferred samples (Lubin, Whitlock, & Rea, 1995).

The psychometric characteristics of the state and trait forms of the MAACL-R6 were also investigated in a sample of seventh-grade public school students (Lubin, Denman, & Whitlock, 1998). Reliability and validity were found to be adequate. Another investigation of the MAACL-R6 was conducted with adult patients at a mental health center; the instrument again demonstrated adequate reliability and validity (Lubin, Grimes, & Whitlock, 1997). The purpose of the present study was to provide norms for the MAACL-R6 by gender and grade for middle and high school students.

METHOD

Subjects

Subjects were 1,172 sixth through twelfth graders. There were 557 males and 615 females, representing two middle schools and one high school. Their ages ranged from 11 to 19 years. Ninety-six percent were white.

Instrument

Each student completed the trait form ("How you generally feel") of the MAACL-R6 (Lubin, Whitlock, & Rea, 1995). The MAACL-R6 contains 62 adjectives from the original MAACL-R (Zuckerman & Lubin, 1985) that were empirically determined to be at no higher than a sixth-grade reading level (Lubin, Whitlock, & Rea, 1995). The scoring format of the MAACL-R has been retained, yielding five unipolar mood scales: Anxiety (A), Depression (D), Hostility (H), Positive Affect (PA), and Sensation Seeking (SS). There are two composite scores, Dysphoria (DYS), which is the sum of A, D, and H, and PASS, which is the sum of PA and SS.

Procedure

Instruments were completed in students' school homerooms.

RESULTS

Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were performed to examine whether there were significant sex and grade differences on the seven MAACL-R6 scales. Significant sex effects were found for the A (F = 21.86; df = 1, 1158; p [less than] .001), D (F = 8.84; df = 1, 1158; p [less than] .003), PA (F = 53.63; df = 1, 1158;p [less than] .0005), DYS (F = 3.82; df = 1, 1158;p [less than] .05), and PASS (F = 37.40; df = 1, 1158;p [less than] .0005) scales. Significant grade effects were found for the D (F = 2.89; df = 6, 1158; p [less than] .009), H (F = 2.95; df = 6, 1158; p [less than] .007), PA (F = 4.53; df = 6, 1158; p [less than] .005), SS (F = 13.29; df = 6, 1158; p [less than] .0005), DYS (F = 2.56; df = 6, 1158; p [less than] .02), and PASS (F = 7.20; df = 6, 1158; p [less than] .0005) scales. Significant Sex x Grade interactions were found for the three positive mood scales: PA (F = 4.03; df = 6, 1158; p [less than] .001), SS (F = 5.18; df = 6, 1158; p [less than] .0005), and PASS (F = 5.02; df = 6, 1158; p [less than] .0005).

Table 2

MAACL-R6 Percentile Norms for Middle School Aged Males

Raw Score    A     D     H     PA    SS    DYS    PASS

33                                          -
32                                          -
31                                          -
30                                          -
29                                         99      -
28                                          -      -
27                                          -     99
26                                          -     98
25                                          -     96
24                                         98     94
23                                          -     93
22                                         97     91
21                                         96     88
20                                          -     84
19                              -          95     80
18                             99          94     75
17                             96           -     71
16                             94          93     65
15                             91          92     59
14                             87          91     53
13                             82          90     51
12                        -    76          88     45
11                 -     98    71          87     40
10            -    99    97    64     -    84     34
9            99    98    95    57    99    81     30
8            98    97    94    53    96    78     25
7            97    96    92    47    83    75     22
6            96    94    89    42    67    71     19
5            94    93    87    35    49    68     15
4            89    90    83    29    34    63     11
3            84    86    76    25    18    58      7
2            75    81    69    21    10    49      4
1            65    75    59    14     4    39      2
0            39    59    43     8     2    26      1

Note: n = 376

Mean scores and standard deviations by sex and grade for the seven MAACL-R6 scales are presented in Table 1. …