In response to the need to recognize and appreciate diversity, K-12 schools should strive to internationalize their curricula. As international cultural and economic interactions continue to increase, an appreciation of other cultures, political and social systems, religions, and languages can help promote international understanding and peace and improve the business and social relationships between people of different nations. Recognizing these facts, Tye and Tye (1992) predict that "global awareness will become the first new basic skill of the twenty-first century, as computer literacy has so rapidly become a basic skill in the final decades of the twentieth century" (pp. 6-7).
Children love to play, and most have some interest in sport. Studying international sport in physical education classes can tap this interest and thereby offer an opportunity to foster an understanding and appreciation of the diverse cultures of other nations. In addition, a study of international sport in physical education can provide a useful vehicle for critical thinking. Questions such as the role of sport in socialist and free-enterprise societies, concepts of fair play in different cultures, and rationales underlying standard strategies in a variety of games offer interesting challenges that can be adapted to different grade levels. Many international examples could be used to test the soundness of widely (and uncritically) accepted ideas.
This article aims to help physical educators internationalize their K-12 curricula through sport-related class work and/or physical participation. The subject matter of international sport can be used in many ways at all school levels. Using the medium of physical activity, students can add to their understanding of other nations and cultures. Sport information and activities from around the world can be incorporated into elementary and secondary physical education programs by adding international units, or at least specific sport units, to existing courses. Additionally, high schools could offer elective courses devoted exclusively to international sport. It is possible to internationalize not only by establishing a new course or a unit within an existing course, but also by infusing internationalism into the entire curriculum.
Class Activities in International Sport
In elementary school, physical education lends itself well to an integrated approach across the curriculum. Young children generally love to move, and they might first learn simple dances and games from other countries and then extend their study to the music, flags, and customs of those nations. In school districts with diverse ethnicities and nations of origin, it is exciting to encourage children's relatives to visit the class and teach an activity of their homeland. This helps families feel involved in their children's education, and also makes the child proud that an activity of his or her heritage is important enough to be taught in school.
The middle elementary grades can continue to develop international themes, with a more detailed look at the climate, products, food, and other aspects of the countries of origin of the games and sports under study For example, sepak takraw, a traditional game of southeast Asia, is played with the feet using a ball woven from reeds. Students can investigate why this type of ball construction is used by considering climate and its effect on vegetation and how such factors have, in turn, affected games and sports. In the U.S., sepak takraw balls made of plastic are now mass-produced. A comparison of the pros and cons of each material would involve playing the game, and some elementary grasp of scientific experimentation. This could lead to a historical examination of how sports equipment has changed over the years, and thus give a practical application of the effects of industrialization. An ideal example of group work might come from investigation of a country, and - among many other aspects examined - sports might well provide an interesting angle for some students.
Fifth- and sixth-graders could examine the ancient Panhellenic festivals and the modern Olympic Games. Ancient and modern sports could be compared. For example, ancient Greek long jumpers held weights in their hands. Can students jump farther by using weights, or without them? They could discuss this question and then try the weights out themselves. Out-and-back foot races versus curve-and-straightaway paths could be analyzed and tested to determine differences in performance.
The nearly 200 countries that now compete in the modern Olympics represent a vast variety of ethnicities, geographies, and cultures. Schools can hold "Olympics" of their own, and students can investigate the country they are assigned or choose to "represent." Another means of focusing on different countries would be to examine the holidays of other nations: when are they, what is celebrated, and what sports may accompany such special days (Buell & Reekie, 1993)?
In junior and senior high school physical education classes, which traditionally emphasize the most popular U.S. team sports, an international sport focus offers special opportunities for increasing student interest and learning. Basketball may be the only game of its kind known to most North American students, so when they learn netball and/or korfball they will see how a slight change of rules can completely alter the game. Showing adolescents that there is more than one way to play a game may help them to become more flexible and creative in their thinking.
Actual person-to-person contact between students from different countries is now relatively easy through e-mail. Each student can be put in touch with a student from another country and exchange information on a regular basis. Curiously, this communication sometimes shows us how ignorant we are about our own system - a starting point for further investigation. Students also find out that the way a person asks questions can reveal much about his or her originating country. Communication between penpals can lead to an appreciation of how social class and family wealth are closely related to participation in certain sports; how most participatory sport outside of the U.S. is club-based rather than school-based; and perhaps how the concepts of amateurism, sportsmanship, goals and values of participatory sport, and the role of spectator sport as entertainment vary among different cultures.
As it is next to impossible for any one instructor to be personally experienced in many countries and their sports, resource people can be sought from the surrounding community to serve as guest lecturers or demonstrators. Wilson (1993) describes the utilization of people with international experience in educational settings. She offers many ways to bring international consciousness and learning into the classroom, particularly through such people as returned Peace Corps volunteers, teachers back from overseas assignments, students who have exchanged to other countries, community residents who have visited overseas, and international students and faculty on university campuses. Wilson views foreign-born students as tremendous resources from whom their classmates can learn a great deal. She further describes the ideal of a combined multicultural and international framework for classrooms, where the core values include responsibility to a world community, an appreciation and acceptance of cultural diversity, and respect for human rights and dignity. Bennett (1990) writes that the goals for multicultural education, when combined with dimensions of a global perspective, are to develop multiple historical perspectives; strengthen cultural consciousness and intercultural competence; combat racism, prejudice, and discrimination; increase awareness of the state of the planet and global dynamics; and build social action skills.
For those areas of the world and those sports of which the instructor has no first-hand knowledge and no experienced people to draw upon, class members could do the research and report back to, and teach, the class. An individual or group report on a country or region could include any or all of the following information: location, size, geography, climate, population, social system, religions, history, popular culture, politics, economics, education system (emphasizing physical education and school-based sport at all levels), preparation of teachers and coaches, traditional games and sports, modern sport (organization, levels, elite, mass), and any special features.
The course or unit could easily be customized to the interests of students by allowing them some choice in the nations or areas to be studied, the sports they wish to play, and the topics to be investigated. Area studies could include investigations of international multisport festivals, such as the Asian, African, and Pan American Games (see tables 1 and 2). The sports programs of the regional games reflect differences in sport cultures around the world. For example, table tennis and chess are included in the Central American Games, and pelota vasca was on the program of the 1991 Pan American Games. Pelota vasca refers to a variety of jai alai-type games, played on a three-wall court, with the ball being propelled by cestas (a kind of basket strapped on the hand), paddles, racquets, or hands. A discussion of Western multisport festivals can help clarify ideas about our fellow Americans, including the basic geography of the continents we share.
Some students may be especially interested in researching the sporting culture of a country that reflects their own ethnic background. Additionally, these students may have good access to relevant resources. International sport naturally complements bilingual or multilingual education programs. For example, students in physical education classes could use the playing terminology of other languages while participating in sports and games. To accomplish this, Spanish class students could teach game terminology and how to keep score in Spanish to their classmates in physical education classes.
The laboratory activities involve an introduction to the procedures, rules, strategies, and skills of sports not widely known in the U.S., or at least not in some geographic areas of the country. Several are outlined here as examples, and ideas for modifications of rules, equipment, and facilities are suggested to lower costs, avoid safety hazards, circumvent the need for special facilities and, in general, make the activities feasible for actual play. For example, goal cages are expensive, but cones or tape may be substituted; goals constructed of PVC plastic are easy to make, inexpensive, and lightweight (Robinson, 1994). An official bat, ball, or goal may often be replaced by something closely approximating it. Conveying an idea of the spirit of the game is more important than playing by "the rules." For detailed explanations of games, refer to the selected bibliography in table 3. The internet resources listed in table 3 contain sites with information such as game rules, procedures, and history; sources of equipment and teaching aids; descriptions and news of international competitions such as the Olympics and Commonwealth Games; and biographies and features on athletes. Table 4 gives examples of suppliers of official and modified, lower-cost equipment. The following activities represent a broad spectrum of sports played around the world.
Cricket. Cricket is popular not only in Great Britain, but also in other Commonwealth and former Commonwealth countries, such as Australia, New Zealand, India, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, and Barbados. The standard playing area for the professional game is circular and ranges from 150 yards to more than 200 yards in diameter. Most of the action actually takes place on and around the pitch, a smooth rectangular area, 66 feet long, between the two wickets (each consisting of three vertical stakes placed close together). Each team, composed of 11 players, bats for one or more innings, depending on the type of competition. An innings continues until 10 of the 11 batsmen have been retired. Two batsmen are on the field at the same time, one at each wicket. At any given moment, the defense consists of a bowler, a wicket-keeper, and nine fielders. However, at least one, and usually several, of the fielders also have to perform as bowlers. The bowler is allowed a run-up in delivering the ball from behind a restraining line. The batsman can let the ball go by, bump it away in any direction, or swing with full force. No matter what happens on a delivery, the batsman can elect to run or not. If he or she runs, the other batsman must run also, and either can be put out if they do not complete one or more exchanges of position. Each safe exchange of position counts one run. Batsmen may be put out by a bowled ball striking the wicket, a batted ball being caught on the fly, or on the run between wickets. The basic pattern of play is for one bowler to make six deliveries (called an "over") to one wicket. Then, another bowler completes an over in the opposite direction. The wicket-keeper shuttles back and forth for each over. When a batsman is put out, he is replaced by another. Standard cricket would require a special facility, and the sport presents considerable safety hazards, because the hard ball can be hurled directly at the batter and it can be batted in any direction, including backwards.
Modified cricket can be played on a playground or in a large gymnasium. Rules may be adjusted so that each student is rotated to a different position after each over (six balls bowled), taking turns at bowling, batting, wicket-keeping (catching), and fielding. The use of tennis or foam balls or plastic whiffle balls obviates the need for batting helmets and protective padding, and gloves for batsmen and wicket-keepers. Bats should have a fiat face, but they can be plastic (and even tennis racquets would give an idea). If no wickets are available, cardboard boxes or other substitutes can be used. A set of two plastic bats, one or two balls, and two wickets can be obtained for $100 to $130, which equals the usual cost of a single standard bat (see table 4 for a list of suppliers).
Kabaddi. Kabaddi is played in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Like cricket, it is played mainly by men, but also by women from school and community level up to international level. The playing area varies from 32-by-26 feet to 41-by-32 feet with a dividing line across the middle (a badminton doubles court, at 44-by-20 feet, is a close approximation). Teams consist of seven players. An intruder enters the opposing team's area and tries to touch members of that team, while holding his or her breath and continuously chanting "kabaddi" to prove that no breath is taken. If a breath is taken in the opposing team's area, one point is conceded. If a defender is touched and the raider returns to his or her own side, one point is scored. If the defenders catch and hold the raider, they win a point and send an intruder of their own. If three consecutive raids do not produce a point, the defenders are awarded a point. If an entire team is tagged, two bonus points are scored, and the game restarts. The team with the most points at the end of a predetermined time (usually 40 minutes for men, 30 minutes for women) wins. The official game can get rough, so it is best played on softer surfaces and by children who are of similar weight and strength.
Netball and Korfball. Netball is extremely popular with women in Commonwealth countries, and korfball is a coeducational sport from Holland that is played worldwide. Both closely resemble early basketball in that no physical contact is permitted, and the ball may be advanced only by passing and cannot be held longer than three seconds. Korfball teams consist of four men and four women, and each is guarded by a same-gender opponent; netball is a seven-per-side sport.
A size-five soccer ball can be used by each sport. Shots on goal may be attempted only by two designated players in netball, and only from within the 16-foot-radius shooting circle. In both sports, every player is restricted to certain areas of the court. However, in korfball the four defenders in one half-court regularly change positions with their offensive four in the other half. In netball, defenders must remain three feet from a player with the ball; in korfball, a closely defended attacker is not allowed to shoot. These restrictions and the lack of dribbling reduce rough contact, making these sports ideal for school physical education. For both sports, goals are freestanding, without backboards, and in korfball, they are located within the playing area. Netball goals are 10 feet high (like basketball); korfball goals are officially 11 feet, 6 inches high. Sporting goods companies can supply adjustable-height goals for around $165. For school play, basketball goals (or a lower target for young children) and a variety of utility balls can be used. Because of the lack of dribbling, both sports can be played on any surface.
Orienteering. This sport is relatively unknown in the United States, although for several years it has been promoted in modified form as an activity for elementary schools. Originating in Sweden, orienteering involves cross-country running while using a compass and following a map in order to pass a series of check points that are indicated along the route. In competition, the terrain is often wooded and hilly, but a modified version is possible using a school campus playground or park for the area of checkpoints. Portions of topographic maps, such as the U.S. Geological Survey's 1:24,000 series can be photocopied for use as base maps. These maps are generally available in libraries and at local U.S. Soil Conservation Service offices. Compasses cost from $10 to $70 each. For elementary school children, simple maps of the school and playground area can be drawn.
Team Handball. This is an important sport in Europe, but it is played all over the world and is an Olympic sport. While some physical education programs in the United States include team handball, many areas have not introduced it. The ball is advanced by running (three steps without dribbling), dribbling, and passing. Scoring is done by throwing the ball into the goal from outside a semi-circle that lies six meters from the goal. Slightly larger than a basketball court, the official court has goals that are two meters high and three meters wide. For class activity, a basketball court could be used, with the 6-meter line marked with tape and with homemade goals or goal areas taped to the gymnasium wall. Balls resemble size-three soccer balls and cost about $21 to $31 each, depending on the size and quantity bought. Soccer balls and playground balls of appropriate size are possible substitutes and are much less expensive. To increase safety, contact should not be allowed and the goalkeeper can be eliminated.
Sepak Takraw. In this southeast Asian game similar to volleyball, players use their feet rather than their hands as they pass the ball among team members and then over a 5-foot net. Size-three soccer or utility balls can be used with a badminton net and court, or the sport can be played outdoors. Balls woven from plastic cord are very close to the traditional ball.
Field Hockey. Although field hockey is well known in parts of the United States and is even a varsity sport for women in some areas, it is virtually unknown in other parts of the country. Even in the midwestern and eastern United States, it is generally played only by women, whereas in many parts of the world it is a very important men's game. India, Pakistan, and former British colonies in Africa and elsewhere are some of the places where field hockey is especially popular.
Competitive field hockey uses a hard ball, which can be propelled with great velocity, so goalies are protected, as in ice hockey, with helmets and full face masks, body padding, gauntlets, and huge pads for lower legs and feet. For class play, plastic sticks and balls can be used, and rules can be modified. Modifications may include requiring that both hands be kept on the stick at all times, limiting body contact, and restricting the allowed range of motion of the stick when striking the ball. Homemade PVC goals can be used. The game can also be played without goalies to eliminate the risk of an unprotected goalie being injured by the ball. A set of 14 plastic sticks, three plastic (whiffle) balls, and one no-bounce hockey ball can be bought for $191.
Lacrosse. Early forms of lacrosse were extremely widespread among North American Indians at the time of European colonization. It is Canada's national game and is played at some U.S. colleges and schools. The ball is carried and passed with a stick and may be kicked or rolled on the ground. In official play, a certain number of players must always be either in the defensive or offensive halves of the field. The men's game can be extremely rough, both through body checking and contact with sticks.
For improving safety and cutting costs, plastic sticks, soft balls, and homemade goals can be used, and rules can be modified to eliminate or minimize contact. As in field hockey, it might be desirable to play without goalies. A set of 12 sticks and 6 to 12 soft balls can be bought for $128 to $216.
Rugby. Typically a rough sport, rugby can be played in a modified form that eliminates contact. Mathesius and Strand (1994) describe touch rugby and suggest rules. Balls cost $28 to $90, but existing footballs could be used, as well as existing football or soccer fields and playgrounds.
Martial Arts. Wrestling, judo, tai chi, and a variety of Asian martial arts can be taught with appropriate modifications. All could use existing mats and would call for controlled conditions of specific movements. Demonstrations of judo and various martial arts can be performed by visiting experts within the school or from the community.
Additional sports that may be played include a variety of lawn bowling-type games, rounders, and croquet. For other activities - such as cycling, equestrian sports, pelota vasca, bull fighting, rowing, sumo, kendo, fencing, shooting, archery, Gaelic/Australian/Canadian football, weight-lifting, hurling, bandy, canoeing, kayaking, sailing, and windsurfing - the use of slides, videotapes, films, pictures and talks by visiting experts can give a good idea of the nature of the activity. Table 5 lists sources for a variety of videotapes.
The various examples given here have only touched the surface of what can be achieved through adding international sport to the K-12 curriculum, including recess activities and physical education classes. Ideal qualifications for teaching this material - in addition to a background in physical education and sport - include knowledge (and, ideally, experience) of other social systems, countries, languages, and sports; a good sense of both history and geography; and a knowledge of the history and sociology of physical education and sport. However, all physical education teachers and elementary classroom teachers can incorporate aspects of international sport in their curricula. What is needed most of all is interest in how other people in the world live and play.
The authors have taught aspects of international sport and physical education to a variety of class levels. Please contact them to request more detailed information or to offer suggestions.
Table 1. International Multisport Festivals
Central American & Caribbean Games
Central American & Caribbean University Games
Central American Games
Pan American Games
Special Olympics World Games
West African Games
World University Games
Table 2. Example of Content for a Unit on International Sport: The Commonwealth Games
* Brief background on the British Empire as predecessor of the British Commonwealth. The sports that developed in Britain during the 15th through 19th centuries and their relations to social class and gender. How did empire-building lead to the worldwide spread of "Western" sports?
* What are the former British colonies and other components that make up the Commonwealth? ("So that's why they play field hockey in Ghana, rugby in New Zealand, and cricket in Barbados!")
* Rules and procedures for playing field hockey, rugby, and cricket. Modifications of these games for purposes of class play.
* Students actually play field hockey, (touch) rugby, and cricket.
Table 3. Selected Bibliography and Internet Resources for International Sport
Alvarez del Villar, J. (1979). Men and horses of Mexico: History and practice of charreria. Mexico, D.F.: Ediciones Lara.
Arlott, J. (Ed.). (1975). The Oxford companion to sports and games. London:Oxford University Press.
Arnold, A. (1972). The world book of children's games. New York: World Press.
Bennett, B. L., Howell, M. L., & Simri, U. (1983). Comparative physical education and sport. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.
Blanchard, K., & Cheska, A.T. (1985). The anthropology of sport: An introduction. South Hadley, MA: Bergin & Garvey.
Broom, E., Clumpner, R., Pendelton, B., & Pooley, C. A. (Eds.). (1987). Comparative physical education and sport (Vol. 5). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Cheska, A. T. (1987). Traditional games and dances in West African nations. Schorndorf, Germany: Verlag Karl Hofmann.
Conrad, B. (1961). Encyclopedia of bullfighting. Cambridge, MA: Riverside Press.
Cordts, H. (Ed.). (1987). International physical education, recreation and dance. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 58(9), 18-48.
Diagram Group. (1977). Way to play: The illustrated encyclopedia of the games of the world. New York: Barton.
Diagram Group. (1979). The official world encyclopedia of sports and games.New York: Paddington.
Fisher, D., & Bragonier, R. (Eds.). (1984). What's what in sports: A visual glossary of the sports world. Maplewood, NJ: Hammond.
Fu, F., & Speak, M. (Eds.). (1989). Comparative physical education and sport(Vol. 6). Hong Kong: Baptist College.
Grunfeld, F. V. (Ed.). (1975). Games of the world: How to make them, how to play them, how they came to be. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Guttmann, A. (1992). The Olympics: A history of the modern games. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Haag, H., Bennett, B. L., & Kayser, D. (Eds). (1986). Comparative physical education and sport (Vol. 4). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Hamil, B. M., & LaPoint, J. D. (1994). Team handball: Skills, strategies and training. Dubuque, IA: Eddie Bowers.
Hammond, Inc. (1996). Students atlas of the world. Maplewood, NJ: Author.
Hardman, K. (Ed.). (1988). Physical education and sport in Africa (ISCPES Monograph No. 1). Manchester, UK: Manchester University.
Haslett, J. G. (1990). Uniqueness of undokai in Japan: Bringing community/family together through dance and sport-like activities. Journal of ICHPER, 26(3), 4-8.
Harris, J. C., & Park, R. J. (Eds.). (1983). Play, games and sports in cultural contexts. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Howell, N., & Howell, M. L. (1969). Sports and games in Canadian life: 1700 to the present. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada.
Kabaddi: Asia's home grown game. (1987). International Journal of Physical Education, 24(3), 32-34.
Krotee, M. L., & Jaeger, E. M. (Eds.). (1982). Comparative physical education and sport (Vol. 3). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Levinson, D., & Christensen, K. (Eds.). (1996). Encyclopedia of world sport. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Melville, T. (1993). Cricket for Americans: Playing and understanding the game. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press.
National Education Association. (1967). ICHPER book of worldwide games and dances. Washington, DC: Author.
Pooley, J., & Pooley, C. A. (Eds). (1982). Proceedings of the second international seminar on comparative physical education and sport. Halifax, Canada: Dalhousie University.
Scott, B. (1976). Lacrosse: Technique and tradition. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Simri, U. (Ed.). (1979). Proceedings of the first international seminar on comparative physical education and sport. Israel: Wingate Institute.
Standeven, J., Hardman, K., & Fisher, D. (Eds). (1991). Sport for all into the 90s: Comparative physical education and sport (Vol. 7). Aachen, Germany: Meyer & Meyer.
Svoboda, B., & Rychtecky, R. (Eds.). (1995). Physical activity for life: Comparative physical education and sport (Vol. 9). Aachen, Germany: Meyer & Meyer.
Tegner, B. (1994). Kung Fu and Tai Chi: Chinese karate and classical exercises (Rev. ed.). Ventura, CA: Thor.
Trafford, B., & Howarth, K. (1990). Women's lacrosse. North Pomfret, VT: Trafalgar Square.
United States Olympic Committee. (issued before each Olympic Games). The Olympics: An educational opportunity enrichment unit. Colorado Springs, CO: Author.
United States Takraw Association. (1997). Coaches'/Players' guide. Torrance: CA: USTA (digital format available from Buka).
Van Mele, V., & Renson, R. (1992). Traditional games in South America. Schorndorf, Germany: Verlag Karl Hofmann.
Vendien, C. L., & Nixon, J. E. (1968). The world today in health, physical education, and recreation. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Wagner, E. A. (Ed.). (1989). Sport in Asia and Africa: A comparative handbook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
White, J. R. (1990). Sports rules encyclopedia. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Wilcox, R. C. (Ed.). (1994). Sport in the global village: Comparative physical education and sport (Vol. 8). Morgantown, WV: FIT.
Internet Resources for Sport
Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles: http://aafla.com/
Olympic Links: http://www.usatt.org/usoc/aac/links.html
USA Takraw: http://www.usatakraw.com/
World Wide Web of Sports: http://www.tns.lcs.mit.edu/cgi-bin/sports/
Table 4. Examples of Suppliers of Equipment and Teaching Aids for International Sports
Buka Sports (sepak takraw)
20710 Manhattan Place
Torrance, CA 90501
Flaghouse (field hockey, cricket, lacrosse)
601 Flaghouse Drive
Hasbrouck Heights, NJ 07604
Gopher (field hockey, cricket, lacrosse)
P.O. Box 998
Owatonna, MN 55060-0998
Great Lakes Sports (field hockey, lacrosse)
P.O. Box 447
Lambertville, MI 48144
Greg Larson Sports (field hockey, cricket, lacrosse)
P.O. Box 567
Brainerd, MN 56401
Gym Closet (field hockey, cricket, lacrosse)
6515 Cotter Avenue
Sterling Heights, MI 48314
Palos Sports (cricket, sepak takraw)
12235 South Harlem Ave.
Palos Heights, IL 60463
S&S (field hockey, cricket, lacrosse)
P.O. Box 513
Colchester, CT 06415-0513
Silva Orienteering Services (orienteering)
P.O. Box 1604
Binghamton, NY 13902-1604
Snitz (cricket, sepak takraw)
P.O. Box 76
East Troy, WI 53120-0076
Sportime (field hockey, cricket, lacrosse, rounders)
One SporTime Way
Atlanta, GA 30340
Things from Bell (cricket, lacrosse)
P.O. Box 135
East Troy, WI 53120
U.S. Games (field hockey, lacrosse, sepak takraw)
12640 Moore Street
Cerritos, CA 90703
Wolverine Sports (field hockey, lacrosse)
Ann Arbor, MI 48106
Table 5. Videotape Resources
A videotape showing a variety of ball games played around the world, but not well known in the United States, is available from Dr. Ken Swalgin, Department of Exercise and Sport Science, Pennsylvania State University, 1031 Edgecomb Avenue, York, PA; (717) 771-4555.
* Instructional videos for a variety of sports are also available from associations and equipment suppliers, such as USA Netball Association (18998 Cloud Lake Circle; Boca Raton, FL 33496), STX, Inc. (field hockey and lacrosse; 1500 Bush Street, Baltimore, MD 21230), and Buka Sports (sepak takraw; 20710 Manhattan Place Suite # 104, Torrance, CA 90501).
* A videotape along with rules for kabaddi can be obtained from Channel 4 TV, 60 Charlotte Street, London W1P 2AX, UK.
* Insight Media (P.O. Box 621, New York, NY 10024-0621) has videos on Tai Chi.
Bennett, C. I. (1990). Comprehensive multicultural education: Theory and practice. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Buell, C. M., & Reekie, S. H. M. (1993). Physical education and social studies - The natural alliance. The Social Studies Review, 32(2), 29-34.
Mathesius, P., & Strand, B. (1994). Touch rugby: An alternative activity in physical education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 65(4), 55-59.
Robinson, M. (1994). Goals on a budget. Strategies, 8(1), 15-17.
Tye, B. B., & Tye, K. A. (1992). Global education: A study of school change. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Wilson, A. H. (1993). The meaning of international experience for schools. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Richard V. McGehee is a professor of kinesiology at Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA 70402. Shirley H. M. Reekie is a professor and the director of the Center for International Sport and Human Performance at San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192.…