Acronyms

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AFB       acid-fast bacilli  AFP       acute flaccid paralysis  AIDS      acquired immunodeficiency           syndrome  APOC      African Programme for           Onchocerciasis Control  AUSAID    Australian Agency for International           Development  BASICS    Basic Support for Institutionalizing           Child Survival  BCG       bacille Calmette-Guerin  CD        Chagas disease  CDC       Centers for Disease Control and           Prevention  CIDA      Canadian International development           Agency  CLD       chronic liver disease  CRS       congenital rubella syndrome  CTD       Control of Tropical Diseases           programme  DALDs     disability-adjusted life days  DALYs     disability-adjusted life years  DANIDA    Danish International Development           Agency  DEC       diethylcarbamazine  DEP       Drancunculiasis Eradication           Programme  DFID      Department for International           Development, United Kingdom  DNA       deoxyribonucleic acid  DOTS      directly observed treatment, short           course  DPT       diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine  DPT3      three doses of DPT vaccine  EDTA      ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid  EP        elimination/eradication programmes  EPI       Expanded Programme on           Immunization  ERR       estimated rate of return  FADNTDs   folic-acid-dependent           neural tube defects  GDP       gross domestic product  GIS       Geographical Information Systems  HALYs     handicap-adjusted life years  HAV       hepatitis A virus  HBV       hepatitis B virus  Hib       Haemophilus influenzae type B  HIs       health information systems  HIV       human immunodeficiency virus  ICCs      interagency coordination           committees  ID        iron deficiency  IDA       iron-deficiency anaemia  IDD       iodine-deficiency disease  IEC       Information, education,           communication  ILO       International Labour Organization  ILSI      International Life Sciences Institute  IPV       inactivated poliovirus  IUMS      International Union of           Microbiological Societies  JICA      Japan International Cooperation           Agency  KAP       knowledge, attitude, practices  KEMRI     Kenya Medical Research Institute  LGA       local government area  MCH       maternal and child health  MDT       multiple drug therapy  MECACAR   international polio effort by 18           countries in the Middle East,           Caucasus, and Central Asian           Republic  MOH       Ministry of Health  MSG       monosodium glutamate  NCIH      National Council for International           Health  NGO       nongovernmental organization  NGDO      nongovernmental development           organization  NIAID     National Institute of Allergy and           Infectious Diseases  NIDs      national immunization days  NIH       National Institutes of Health  NIS       Newly Independent States of the           former USSR  NT        neonatal tetanus  OCP       Onchocerciasis Control Programme  OEPA      Onchocerciasis Elimination Program           for the Americas  OPV       oral poliovirus vaccine  PAHO      Pan American Health Organization  PCR       polymerase chain reaction  PEM       protein-energy malnutrition  PHC       primary health care  PHC       primary hepatocellular carcinoma  PHS       Public Health Service  PPD       purified protein derivative  RNA       ribonucleic acid  SSPE      subacute sclerosing panencephalitis  STD       sexually transmitted disease  TB        tuberculosis  TFCSD     Task Force for Child Survival           and Development  TSH       thyroid-stimulating hormone  TT        tetanus toxoid  UC        University of California  UNAIDS    United Nations Programme on           HIV/AIDS  UNDP      United Nations Development           Programme  UNICEF    United Nations Children's Fund  USAID     United States Agency for           International Development  USD       United States dollar  USI       universal salt iodization  VAD       vitamin A deficiency  VVM       vaccine vial monitor  WFPHA     World Federation of Public Health           Associations  WHO       World Health Organization  YF        yellow fever