Academic journal article
By Reiger, Robert C.
Journal of Instructional Psychology , Vol. 27, No. 2
This is an experimental assessment of the present status of The Democratic Maturity Test (DEMO) for use with high school students. It is clear that the mean for part score entitled "Self-esteem" is too high, and must be revised immediately. All of the other scores seem to be functioning properly.
The Democratic Maturity Test (DEMO) is being developed for use in the assessment of individual's readiness for successful living in a democracy. It is based on the theory described by John Dewey that "a democracy is the interdependence of independent individuals." It has 200 true/false type items distributed in eight part scores, with the first four dedicated to assessing independence as "Personal Maturity," and the second four for measuring interdependence as "social Integration." The DEMO test has gone through more than a half dozen different revisions, and 7 of the 8 part scores appear to be in the final stage of such assessment.
High School Population
The high school assessment population included 121 senior high school students from a typical high school in New Jersey ranging In age from 15 to 19 years with a mean age of 15.95. and a standard deviation of 1.06 years. It included 66 female and 55 male students. There were 70 9th grade students (freshmen), 30 10th grade students (sophomores), 15 11th grade students (juniors) and only six 12th grade students (seniors) involved.
Validity of Student Scores
The Discerning Score is comprised of 21 pairs of test items that are either opposite to each other, or not compatible. A score of 15 or higher is considered to represent invalid test data. Not a single student obtained an invalid score, and characteristic erasing of scores in student records suggest serious test taking.
Independence of Eight Part Scores
First, and foremost we are concerned about the independence of organization of the eight part scores, and the degree to which they might overlap in terms of their functional content. A principal component factor analysis, using a constant was computed using varimax rotations with rotated factors as depicted in Table 1, below. There is a total independence of the eight part scores, each with a loading at the 900 level and with not a single significant contamination evident--scores of 300 level or better. The total variance is equally distributed among the eight part scores: 12 in each one.
Principal Components Factor Analysis of DEMO Part Scores (N = 121)
Factors Scores I II III IV Conformity CFM 948(*) -122 062 110 Assertiveness ASS -116 964(*) 058 -020 Sympathy SYM 058 057 967(*) 061 Efficacy EFF 103 019 061 970(*) Caring CAR 107 138 134 084 Locus of Control LOC 168 098 -001 111 Coping Skills COP 146 195 169 070 Self-esteem EST 122 014 149 177 Scores V VI VII VIII % TV Conformity 104 170 136 114 12. …