Preliminary evidence in sport research suggests that an interdependence may exist between athletes' motivational goals and their stress responses. The present study sought to establish this particular tenet of goal perspective theory (Duda & Nicholls, 1992) among a sample of culturally diverse adolescent athletes. Female volleyball players (N = 196) participating in a United States Olympic Committee (USOC) Development Program completed the 13-item Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, the 13-item Trait Sport Confidence Inventory, and the 21-item Sport Anxiety Scale. The study examined the multivariate relationship among ego orientation, task orientation, sport self-confidence, and the three-trait anxiety dimensions of worry/concern, concentration disruption, and somatic anxiety. In addition, hierarchical multiple regression analyses provided support for the contention that self-confidence plays a mediating role in the goal orientation-trait anxiety relationship. Specifically, greater competitive tr ait anxiety was evidenced only among those highly ego-involved athletes reporting low self-confidence. These findings strongly suggest that coaches and sport psychologists endeavor to enhance their athletes' task involvement, yet also consider the interaction of motivational goals and self-confidence when assessing the stress responses of Mexican-American female athletes.
For numerous years sport psychologists and researchers have utilized Nicholl's (1984, 1992) achievement motivation theory as a means of attempting to determine how individuals are motivated to participate and perform in evaluative situations. Proponents of the achievement goal perspective have advocated the value of considering differences in goal orientations in the study of cognitive and affective responses as well as achievement-related behaviors within the sport arena (Duda, 1988, 1989). Nicholls (1978, 1990) notes that task and ego goals play a central role in the development of achievement behavior within sport, providing a mediating effect on achievement striving. These achievement goals define patterns of motivation that represent different ways of being attracted to, engaged in, and reactive to achievement-related outcomes (Ames, 1992).
Task orientation is characterized by individuals whose actions focus on developing new skills, placing high value on effort, and striving for task mastery based on self-referenced perceptions of ability. Conversely, ego orientation is characterized by individuals who attempt to demonstrate superior ability by outperforming others, thus utilizing a norm-based perception of ability (Duda, 1992; Jagacinski, 1992; Nicholls, 1989; Roberts, 1992). It is proposed that a task-involved athlete chooses more challenging tasks, experiences greater intrinsic interest in activities, and exerts more effort in difficult tasks. Further, these behaviors continue to be demonstrated by the task-involved athlete even though he or she may report low levels of perceived ability in the task. However, those athletes with a largely ego orientation and low perceived ability are prone to task avoidance, reduced effort, heightened anxiety, concentration disruption, and withdrawal from the activity in the face of failure (Duda, 1988, 198 9; Duda, Chi, & Newton, 1990; Duda, Chi, Newton, Walling, & Catley, 1995; Dweck, 1986; Jagacinski & Nicholls, 1990; White & Zellner, 1996).
Recent studies in goal perspective theory have investigated the role of goal orientations on a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and affective indices such as sustained involvement and persistence (Duda, 1988; Duda, Smart, & Tappe, 1989), beliefs about the perceived causes of success (Newton & Duda, 1992), participation motivation (Dweck, 1986; White & Duda, 1991), perceived purposes of sport involvement and sportspersonship (Duda, 1989; Roberts, Hall, Jackson, Kimiecik, & Tonymon, 1990; Ryska & Richey, 1999), academic performance (Ryska, in press), perceived means to goal attainment (Duda, Olson, & Templin, 1991; Kleiber & Roberts, 1981), as well as enjoyment, intrinsic interest, and competitive anxiety (Boyd, 1990; Ryan, Mims, & Koestner, 1983). A majority of these studies have assessed individual differences in goal orientation through use of Duda and Nicholl's (1992) Task and Ego in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). The validity and reliability of the task and ego subscales have since been established for you th sport participants, high school and college aged students as well as across various cultural groups (Duda & Whitehead, 1998; Li, Harmer, Chi, & Vongjaturapat, 1996; White & Duda, 1991). However, as noted by Li, Harmer, Acock, Vongjaturapat, and Boonverabut (1997), both the theory and instrumentation concerning goal orientations have been developed largely upon the responses of Anglo samples. Erroneous conclusions may be drawn by those researchers who assume that results generated by the TEOSQ within one particular cultural context are necessarily applicable to other countries and cultures.
This particular concern has led researchers to cite the importance of research driven by the concept of cultural diversity in sport (Duda & Allison, 1990). Numerous researchers have begun to examine the influence of culture on various aspects of achievement-related behavior in sport such as the relationship between goal perspectives and participation in English youth sport (Duda, Fox, Biddle, & Armstrong, 1992; Whitehead, 1995), the measurement of goal perspectives among Korean youth sport participants (Kim & Gill, 1997), as well as differences in achievement motivation between Anglo-American and Japanese marathon runners (Hayashi & Weiss, 1994; Li et al., 1996; Li et al., 1997). In particular, Ryska and Yin (1998) explored the role of specific acculturative patterns in the formation of goal perspectives among Mexican-American high school athletes. Preliminary results revealed that among male athletes, a high degree of acculturation in regards to media use and interpersonal relations predicted greater ego in volvement in sport. Whereas, high levels of acculturated language use and low levels of acculturated interpersonal relations predicted greater task involvement among female athletes.
Markus and Kitayama (1991) demonstrated cultural differences in regards to self-perceptions and individual competence. Comparing Anglo (Western) and Japanese (Eastern) populations, these researchers revealed that the Westerners largely adopted a more independent view of self perceptions, characterized by the individual striving to be successful via social comparison process. Whereas, Easterners developed their self-perceptions by seeking the opportunity to belong to a groups while adjusting to the demands around them, demonstrating achievement-related behavior in relation to the group's needs/demands.
Despite these intial results, sport research has provided little empirical evidence as to the general applicability of achievement goal theory to diverse cultural groups, and in specific, the role of sport motivation and self-confidence on the development of competitive trait anxiety among Mexican-American athletes. By neglecting to address the sociocultural influences present in sport and exercise behavior, various authors (Duda & Allison, 1990; Kim & Gill, 1997) contend that the applicability of psychological theory, such as that offered by achievement orientation, will be limited.
The first purpose of the present study was to describe the multivariate relationship between ego orientation, task orientation, sport self-confidence, and the trait anxiety dimensions of worry/concern, concentration disruption, and somatic anxiety among Mexican-American adolescent athletes. Based on the tenets of goal perspective theory (see Duda, 1992) and related cross cultural research (Kang, Gill, Acevedo, & Deeter, 1990; Li et al., 1997; Markus & Kitayana, 1991), we also sought to determine the specific mediating effect of sport self-confidence on goal orientations in their prediction of competitive trait anxiety. First, we hypothesized that highly task-involved athletes would experience significantly less trait anxiety regardless of their level of sport self-confidence. Second, it was predicted that when self-confidence is low, highly ego-involved athletes would demonstrate significantly greater trait anxiety than athletes low in ego orientation. However, when self-confidence is high, no differences in trait anxiety were expected among athletes differing in their level of ego involvement.
Similar to Kim and Gill (1997), the present study utilized a "top down" approach to investigate the predictions of a culturally biased theory (i.e., goal perspective) with a specific cultural group. Hence, if the propositions posited by the theory are observed, then it is assumed that the theory has a legitimate level of applicability to cultural groups other than mainstream Anglo-Americans (Betancourt & Lopez, 1993).
Participants and Procedure
The sample was comprised of 196 female Mexican-American volleyball players participating in a year-long training program facilitated by a youth sport development branch of the United States Olympic Committee (USOC). The USOC training program from which participants were solicited was located in a major metropolitan city in the Southwest. Demographic information regarding age, academic grade, and years of competitive experience for the total sample is provided in Table 1. One hundred thirty-four players (68%) participated on a scholastic volleyball team with 125 (93%) of these players starting in their respective team positions.
Questionnaire and demographic items were administered to players prior to a scheduled practice during a USOC-sponsored volleyball camp. Parents were provided a brief written description of the study and informed consent was obtained for each participant. Prior to survey administration, participants were assured of the anonymity and confidentiality of their responses as well as their ability to terminate participation at anytime. Participants were fully debriefed as to the purpose of the study at the conclusion of testing.
Motivational goal orientation. The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ; Duda, 1989; 1992) was used to measure individual differences in the tendency to identify with ego and task goals in the competitive sport setting. Athletes were provided the stem, "I feel most successful in volleyball when" and then asked to respond to 7 task-related items (e.g., "something I learn makes me want to go and practice more") and 6 ego-related items (e.g., "others can't do as well as me"). Items are scored along a 5-point scale anchored by 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) with mean scores calculated for both the task and ego orientation subscales. The reliability and validity of the TEOSQ has been demonstrated in a variety of sport-related contexts (Boyd, 1990; Duda, 1992; Duda & Nicholls, 1989; White, Duda, & Sullivan, 1991; Williams, 1994). The reliability estimates for the task and ego subscales for the present sample were .78 and .74, respectively.
Trait sport confidence. Vealey's (1986) Trait Sport-Confidence Inventory (TSCI) was utilized to measure the enduring level of certainty athletes hold regarding their sport ability. The TSCI is comprised of 13 items that reflect various aspects of sport performance. Respondents are asked to compare their level of confidence in each performance area to that of the most confident athlete they know, utilizing a 9-point scale anchored by 1 (low) to 9 (high). Item examples include, "Compare your confidence in your ability to perform under pressure to the most confident athlete you know" and "compare your confidence in your ability to achieve your competitive goals to the most confident athlete you know". All items are added to create a unidimensional scale of trait sport confidence. The TSCI has demonstrated adequate internal consistency and construct validity across a variety of sport samples (Vealey, 1986, 1988). The reliability estimate of the TSCI reached an acceptable level among the present sample of athletes at .89.
Competitive trait anxiety. The Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS; Smith, Smoll, & Schutz, 1990) was used to measure both the cognitive and somatic components of competitive trait anxiety. The subscales of Worry (SAS-W) and Concentration Disruption (SAS-CD) assess the tendency of athletes during competition to experience ruminative thoughts and attentional disturbances, respectively. The SAS-W subscale includes items such as, "I am concerned about choking under pressure" and "I have self-doubts in competition". Examples from the SAS-CD subscale include," During competition, I find myself thinking about unrelated things" and thoughts of doing poorly interfere with my concentration during competition". The Somatic (SAS-Som) subscale measures the tendency of athletes to experience anxiety-related perceptions of autonomic arousal within the competitive sport setting and include, "My heart races during competition" and "My body feels tight before I compete". All responses are scored along a4-point scale anchored by 1 (not at all) to 4 (very much so). SAS items were modified slightly in the present study by replacing the word "sport" with "volleyball" in each item where appropriate. Various studies have demonstrated adequate internal consistency and validity of the three SAS subscales, with reliability estimates ranging from .76 (SAS-CD)to.89(SAS-W)(Smith et al, 1990; Wilson & Ecklund, 1998). Among the volleyball athletes the reliability estimates for the worry/concern, concentration disruption, and somatic subscales were .77, .82, and .88, respectively.
Response bias. Due to the potentially negative self-referent content of the questionnaire items, it was considered important to assess and control for potential self-presentational biases in athletes' responses. The short form of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (M-CSDS; Crowne&Marlowe, 1964; Reynolds, 1982) was used to assess the tendency for respondents to bias their answers in a socially desirable or self-effacing manner. Respondents were asked to indicate whether each of 13 statements was true or not true for them personally. These statements were written to reflect either a socially desirable or non-socially desirable trait and include, "no matter who I'm talking to, I'm always a good listener," "there have been occasions when I took advantage of someone," and "I'm always willing to admit it when I make a mistake". The extent to which an individual responds positively on socially desirable items and negatively on non-socially desirable items indicates a greater need to present oneself in a p ositive light through biasing one's responses. The M-CSDS demonstrated adequate internal consistency (r = .76) among the present sample of athletes.
The descriptive statistics for the study variables are presented in Table 2. The alpha coefficients of each subscale met the reliability standard established by Kline (r [greater than] .70) (1986). Examination of the intercorrelations presented in Table 3 suggests sufficient tolerance among the study variables with none of the relationships approaching the .70 level set forth by Tabachnick and Fidell (1996). It also appeared that no variables were appreciably contaminated by a socially desirable response set (allrs[less than]20). Thus, all variables were retained for subsequent canonical and regression analyses.
The intercorrelations among the trait anxiety subscales indicate that the SAS measures similar yet independent somatic and cognitive dimensions of sport anxiety among the present sample of youth athletes. Examination of the simple correlations revealed several meaningful patterns of relationships among the study variables. Nearly all the perceived competence subscales demonstrated significant positive relationships with both task-involved motivation and trait sport confidence as well as negative relationships with ego-involved motivation and the trait anxiety dimensions of worry/concern and concentration disruption.
It was hypothesized that athletes' goal orientations and self-confidence would be related to their levels of competitive trait anxiety in a theoretically consistent manner. A canonical analysis was conducted to assess these multivariate relationships by using the subscale means of the TEOSQ and TSCI measures as well as the SAS dimensions as the linear combinations of predictor and criterion variables, respectively. Two significant functions emerged which accounted for the overall multivariate relationship, Wilks's lambda = .59, F(9, 382) = 5.77,p[less than].001. Function 1 had a canonical correlation of .47 ([Rc.sup.2] = .22) with a redundancy index of 18.3 and Function 2 had a canonical correlation of .38 ([Rc.sup.2] = .14) with a redundancy index of 12.2. As the canonical correlations of these functions exceeded .30 ([greater than]10% overlap in variance), both functions were considered significant and meaningful (Pedhazur, 1982; Tabachnick & Fidell, 1996). The total redundancy index of the two solutions r evealed that goal orientations and trait sport confidence explained 30.5% of the variance in the competitive trait anxiety dimensions. The two canonical variates shown in Table 4 are interpreted in light of the variables highly correlated with them, respectively. Variables with loading values [greater than] .30 are usually interpreted as significant contributors to their respective variate (Tabachnick & Fidell, 1996).
An examination of the standardized canonical loadings in Functions 1 and 2 indicate strong, and theoretically consistent relationships between athletes' motivational orientations, self-confidence levels, and competitive trait anxiety. Function 1 reveals that a high positive loading for ego orientation and a moderate negative loading for sport self-confidence emerged for each of the trait anxiety dimensions. In alignment with the tenets of goal perspective theory, the data indicate that athletes who were highly ego-involved and low in self-confidence were also those who reported high trait anxiety in the forms of worry/concern, concentration disruption, and somatic complaints. Conversely, Function 2 was best represented by a negative relationship between a task orientation and the anxiety dimensions of worry/concern and concentration disruption. Highly task-involved athletes were those reporting lower cognitive trait anxiety.
The present study was most interested in the role of perceived ability in the relationship between goal orientations and competitive trait anxiety. A major premise in the goal perspective theory of achievement motivation states that the behavioral and affective responses of an ego- oriented individual are largely a function of his or her perceptions of ability. Whereas, a positive relationship between task involvement and adaptive responses is generally evidenced regardless of perceived competence levels.
Baron and Kenny (1986) state that the three basic pathways which contribute to an outcome variable include a predictor main effect, a mediating variable main effect, and the interaction of the predictor and mediating variables. These authors contend that a mediating hypothesis is supported if the interaction term is significant, whereas main effects are not conceptually relevant to testing this hypothesis. In order to directly test this mediating effect among the present sample of Mexican-American female athletes, separate moderated hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the trait anxiety dimensions. In each regression equation the goal orientation and self-confidence variables were entered individually, followed by the calculated products of the goal orientation and self-confidence variables. Increments in explained variance in trait anxiety scores were assessed at each step. If a variable failed to contribute significantly either in terms of a main effect or as part of an inte raction term, this variable was removed and the regression equation was then recalculated (Jaccard, Turrisi, & Choi, 1990).
The final regression results for each of the trait anxiety dimensions are provided in Table 5. Competitive worry/concern was predicted by two main effects and one interaction effect with a total explained variance of 25%. Task orientation was entered first and emerged as a significant negative predictor, explaining 16% of the variance (p[less than].001). Sport self-confidence was entered next and also contributed in a negative direction, accounting for an additional 3% (p[less than].05). The product of ego orientation and self-confidence contributed a significant interaction effect, explaining 6% of the variance (p[less than].01). A total of 19% of the variance in concentration disruption was predicted by one main effect and one interaction effect. Task orientation again emerged as a significant negative predictor, explaining 11% of the variance (p[less than].001) and the interaction term of ego orientation and self-confidence contributed an additional 8% (p[less than].01). Lastly, 17% of the variance in som atic trait anxiety was accounted for by the positive predictor of ego orientation (p[less than].001) and negative predictor of self-confidence, explaining 13% and 4% of the variance, respectively.
The results of the multiple regression analyses indicate that the combination of ego involvement and self-confidence significantly predicted levels of worry/concern and concentration disruption reported by the athletes. However, to fully test the stated hypothesis it was required to determine the nature of these interactions, that is, the specific mediating effect of self-confidence on ego involvement in its prediction of the cognitive anxiety dimensions.
In order to accomplish this, two subsamples were created by those athletes scoring in the lower and upper thirds of the distribution of self-confidence scores, respectively. To determine the mediating effect of self-confidence on worry/concern, a regression analysis was conducted on each of these samples with ego orientation as the independent variable and worry/concern as the outcome variable. These analyses revealed that a mediating relationship was only significant among the athletes low in sport self-confidence, R = .319, F(1,65) = 6.75, p[less than].01. This may be interpreted that when self-confidence was low, highly ego-involved athletes reported significantly higher levels of worry/concern than athletes low in ego orientation. However, when self-confidence was high, no differences in worry/concern were observed among athletes differing in ego orientation. This analysis produced similar results using concentration disruption as the outcome variable. As before, a significant mediating relationship was evidenced only among athletes low in sport self-confidence, R=.507, F(l, 65) = 10.03, p[less than].01. Specifically, when self-confidence was high, no differences in concentration disruption were observed between athletes high or low in ego involvement. When self-confidence was low, however, athletes reporting relatively high ego involvement also demonstrated greater levels of concentration disruption than their low ego involved counterparts.
The present study used a "top-down" approach (Kim & Gill, 1997) to test whether sport self-confidence mediates the extent to which motivational goals predict trait anxiety among Mexican-American adolescent athletes. The results generally supported the cross-cultural application of this interactional aspect of goal perspective theory (Duda, 1992; Nicholls, 1984).
The canonical analyses revealed that when athletes perceived themselves as highly ego involved and low in self-confidence, they experienced higher levels in each of the three dimensions of competitive trait anxiety. A high task orientation was associated with low cognitive-based sources of trait anxiety, yet somatic anxiety did not significantly contribute to the multivariate relationship. Personal success, according to a task orientation, is based largely on self-referenced criteria such as expended effort, skill improvement, and persistence. Due to the fact that these behaviors are under one's control, we might expect such an athlete to experience less concern regarding the competitive environment. Whereas, it may be possible that these task involved athletes construed somatic anxiety as a physical readiness to compete, thus individual differences in this construct would be expected regardless of an athlete's level of task involvement.
As a whole, these results extend prior research that has linked an ego orientation with high levels of cognitive anxiety, particularly in the form of worry (Duda, 1993; White & Zellner, 1996). In addition, support has also been provided for the notion that a task orientation tends to be linked to more adaptive affective responses within the competitive youth sport setting (Duda, 1992). Sport research has demonstrated that women tend to report higher levels than men in somatic trait anxiety, cognitive worry, and physiologically-based anxiety prior to and during competition (Jones, Swain, & Cale, 1991; Rainey & Cunningham, 1988; White & Zellner, 1996). Further research should test for potential gender differences in the motivational goal/self-confidence interaction among various cultural groups.
The results of the moderated hierarchical regression analyses provide support for the interaction premise of Nicholl's (1984, 1989) goal orientation theory which contends that an individual's behavioral and affective responses within an evaluative setting result largely as a function of his or her goal perspective and perceived ability. For example, among those individuals who question their competence and adopt an ego goal perspective, a low achievement behavioral pattern is predicted characterized by a withdrawal of effort, heightened competitive stress and concentration disruption (Duda, 1988; Duda, Chi, & Newton, 1990). Conversely, among those who have a high task orientation or a high ego orientation accompanied by high perceptions of ability, an adaptive behavioral pattern is predicted characterized by a stronger work ethic, persistence in the activity, lower competitive stress, and optimal performance (Ames, 1984; Duda, 1989; Dweck, 1986). Consistent with these prior results, the present analyses reve aled that task involvement significantly predicted the cognitive dimensions of competitive trait anxiety, whereas a main effect was observed between ego involvement and somatic trait anxiety. However, based on the interaction results, it is important to note that ego orientation contributed to higher levels of cognitive anxiety (i.e., worry/concern, concentration disruption) only among those athletes reporting low sport self-confidence. Interestingly, the combined effect of task involvement and heightened self-confidence does not appear to contribute to lower levels of trait anxiety beyond that provided by a task orientation alone. These results imply that the development of self-confidence and a task-oriented sport environment may represent two plausible intervention strategies to assist these athletes. However, the above interactions were observed only among those athletes relatively high or low in sport self-confidence. One limitation of the present study is that the mediating effect of self-confidence on the goal perspective-trait anxiety relationship was not directly tested among those athletes with moderate levels of self-confidence. Hence, the potential efficacy of intervention among these athletes remains unclear.
In addition, this study represents an extension of preliminary research being conducted on achievement motivation in diverse cultural groups. Additional work must be incorporated which tests other aspects of the goal perspective theory such as the development of particular motivational orientations among Mexican-Americans. For example, sport researchers have long been interested in the factors that contribute to individual differences in motivated behavior among sport and exercise participants. Initial inquiry into the achievement motivation patterns among youth athletes had used as its foundation adult-based models of motivation derived largely from the behavior of white, middle-class populations. However, several authors state that an individual's adoption of a particular motivation orientation is, in large part, determined by situational and cultural contexts (Maeher & Nicholls, 1980; Markus & Kitayama, 1991). Consequently, a call has been made for a more developmental, culturally-sensitive approach to th e study of achievement motivation among children and adolescents which proposes that the manner in which subjective goals and causal perceptions are formed among youth may be mediated by an individual's cultural perspective (Bredemeier & Weiss, 1983; Duda, 1988; Duda & Allison, 1990).
Initial evidence has linked athletes' adoption of either a task or ego goal orientation to their respective cultural group (Hayashi & Weiss, 1994) as well as demonstrated cultural differences in the goal/rewards structures adopted among exercisers (Hayashi, 1996). Motivation research that has specifically targeted Mexican-American populations has shown a consistent discrepancy between the motivational orientation of this ethnic group and that of mainstream Anglo culture (Carter, 1982; Maeher & Nicholls, 1980; Ramirez & Castaneda, 1974). It appears that three basic values of the Mexican-American culture run contrary to the mainstream achievement realm as well as guide the development of goal perspectives among Mexican-American adolescents (Kagan, 1977; Ramirez & Castaneda, 1974; Stoddard, 1973). First, a greater emphasis is placed on satisfying the needs and interests of the group rather than those of the individual. In addition, there is a tendency towards cooperative, rather than competitive, motives within interpersonal relations. Third, Mexican-Americans tend to focus on the process of present behaviors rather than the outcome of future experiences.
Comparing the goal perspectives of culturally diverse adolescent student-athletes, Duda (1980; 1985; 1986) and her colleagues (Allison & Duda, 1982; Duda & Allison, 1982) provide empirical support for this proposed discrepancy in motivational orientation. Anglo students were more likely to construe personal success from competitive or outcome-based criteria, whereas Navajo, Mexican-American, and African-American students tended to emphasize the self-based criteria of personal improvement and effort when defining personal success. In addition, the ability of helping the collective (i.e., group, team) was used as a criterion of personal success more among Navajo and Mexican-American students than among Anglo students (Duda, 1980; Duda & Allison, 1982). Similarly, Anglo male athletes preferred to attribute athletic success to ability and failure to lack of effort as compared to their Mexican American and Navajo counterparts who emphasized effort in success and lack of ability in failure. Thus, one line of inqui ry in need of additional attention involves how various levels of acculturation influences the behavioral and affective consequences of goal perspectives among the culturally diverse.
Allison, M. T., & Duda, J. L. (1982). Competition and cooperation: A socio-cultural perspective. In A.T. Cheska (Ed.), Play as context. West Point, NY: Leisure Press.
Ames, C. (1984). Achievement attributions and self-instructions under competitive and individualistic goal structures. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 478-487.
Ames, C. (1992). Achievement goals, motivational climate, and motivational processes. In G.C. Roberts (Ed.), Motivation in Sport and Exercise (pp. 161-176). Champaign, IL:Human Kinetics Publishing.
Barron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.
Betancourt, H., & Lopez, S.R. (1993). The study of culture, ethnicity, and race in American psychology. American Psychologist, 48, 629-637.
Boyd, M.P. (1990). The effects of participation orientation and success-failure on post-competitive affect among young athletes. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
Bredemeier, B.J., & Weiss, M. (1983). Developmental sport psychology: A theoretical approach for studying children in sport. Journal of Sport Psychology, 5, 216-230.
Carter, T. P. (1982). Mexican-Americans: How the school has failed them. In L.I. Duran, & H.R. Bernard (Eds.), Introduction to Chicano studies. New York: MacMillan.
Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1964). The approval motive: Studies in evaluative dependence. New York: Wiley.
Duda, J. L. (1980). Achievement motivation among Navajo Indians: A conceptual analysis with preliminary data. Ethos, 9, 316-331.
Duda, J. L. (1985). Goals and achievement orientations of Anglo and Mexican-American adolescents in sport and the classroom. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 9, 131-155.
Duda, J. L. (1986). Perceptions of sport success and failure among white, black, and Mexican-American adolescents. In J. Watkins, T. Reilly, & L. Burwitz (Eds.), Sport science (pp. 214-222). London: E. & F. N. Spon.
Duda, J.L. (1988). The relationship between goal perspective and persistence and intensity among recreational sport participants. Leisure Studies, 10, 95-106.
Duda, J.L. (1989). The relationship between task and ego orientation and the perceived purpose of sport among male and female high school athletes. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 11, 318-335.
Duda, J.L. (1992). Motivation in sport settings: A goal perspective approach. In G. Roberts (Ed.), Motivation in sport and exercise (pp. 57-91). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Duda, J.L. (1993). Goals: A social cognitive approach to the study of achievement motivation in sport. In R.N. Singer, M. Murphy, & L.K. Tennant (Eds.), Handbook of research on sport psychology (pp.421-436). New York: Macmillan.
Duda, J.L., & Allison, M.T. (1982). The nature of sociocultural influences on achievement motivation: The case of the Navajo Indian. In J.W. Loy (Ed.), Paradoxes of play (pp. 188-197). West Point, NY: Leisure Press.
Duda, J.L., & Allison, M.T. (1990). Cross-cultural analysis in exercise and sport psychology: A void in the field. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 12,114-131.
Duda, J.L., Chi, L., & Newton, M. (1990, June). Psychometric characteristics of the TEOSQ. Paper presented at the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity, Houston, TX.
Duda, J.L., Chi, L., Newton, M., Walling, M., & Catley, D. (1995). Task and ego orientation and intrinsic motivation in sport. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 26, 40-63.
Duda, J.L., Fox, X.R., Biddle, S.J., & Armstrong, N. (1992). Children's achievement goals and beliefs about success in sport. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 62, 313-323.
Duda, J., Olson, L.K., & Templin, T.J. (1991). The relationship of task and ego orientation to sportsmanship attitudes and the perceived legitimacy of injurious acts. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 62. 79-85.
Duda, J.L., & Nicholls, J.G. (1989). The Task and Ego Orientation Questionnaire: Psychometric properties. Unpublished manuscript.
Duda, J.L., & Nicholls, J.G. (1992). Dimensions of achievement motivation in schoolwork and sport. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 290-299.
Duda, J.L., Smart, A., & Tappe, M. (1989). Personal investment in the rehabilitation of athletic injuries. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 11,367-381.
Duda, J.L. & Whitehead, J. (1998). Measurement of goal perspectives in the physical domain. In J. L. Duda (Ed.), Advances in sport and exercise psychology measurement (pp.21-48). Morgantown, WV: Fitness In formation Technology.
Dweck, C.S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41, 1040-1048.
Hayashi, C. T. (1996). Achievement motivation among Anglo-American and Hawaiian male physical activity participants: Individual differences and social contextual factors. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 18, 194-215.
Hayashi, C.T., & Weiss, M. (1994). A cross-cultural analysis of achievement motivation in Anglo-American and Japanese marathon runners. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 25, 187-202.
Jaccard, J., Turrisi, R., & Choi, K. W. (1990). Interaction effects in multiple regression. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Jagacinski, C. (1992). The effects of task involvement and ego involvement on achievement-related cognitions and behaviors. In D.H. Schunk and J.L. Meece (Eds.), Student perceptions in the classroom. (pp. 307-322). Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics.
Jagacinski, C.M., & Nicholls, J.G. (1990). Reducing effort to protect perceived ability: "They'd do it but I wouldn't." Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 15-21.
Jones, G., Swain, A., & Cale, A. (1991). Gender differences in precompetition temporal patterning and antecedents of anxiety and self-confidence. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 13, 1-15.
Kagan, S. (1977). Social motives and behaviors of Mexican-American and Anglo-American children. In J.L. Martinez (Ed.), Chicano psychology. New York: Academic Press.
Kang, L., Gill, D., Acevedo, E.O., & Deeter, T.E. (1990). Competitive orientations among athletes and nonathletes in Taiwan. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 21, 146-157.
Kim, B.J., & Gill, D. (1997). A cross-cultural extension of goal perspective theory to Korean youth sport. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 19, 142-155.
Kleiber, D., & Roberts, G.C. (1981). The effects of sport experience in the development of social character: An exploratory investigation. Journal of Sport Psychology, 3, 114-122.
Kline, P. (1986). A handbook for test construction: Introduction to psychometric design. London, N.Y: Methven and Co. Ltd.
Li, F., Harmer, P., & Acock, A. (1996). The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire: Construct equivalence and mean differences across gender. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2, 228-238.
Li, F., Harmer, P., Chi, L., & Vongjaturapat, N. (1996). Cross-validation of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 18, 392-407.
Li, F., Harmer, P., Acock, A., Vongjaturapat, N., & Boonverabut, S. (1997). Testing the cross-cultural validity of TEOSQ and its factor covariance and mean structures across gender. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 28, 275-286.
Maehr, M. L., & Nicholls, J. G. (1980). Culture and achievement motivation: A second look. In N. Warren (Ed.), Studies in cross-cultural psychology (pp.221-267). New York: Academic Press.
Markus, H., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, motivation, and emotion. Psychological Review, 98,224-253.
Newton, M., & Duda, J. L. (1992, April). The relationship between dispositional goal perspectives and effort, interest, involvement, and trait anxiety in adolescent tennis players. Paper presented at the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, Indianapolis, IN.
Nicholls, J. G. (1978). The development of the concepts of effort and ability, perception of attainment, and the understanding that difficult tasks require more ability. Child Development, 49, 800-8 14.
Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions ofability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91,328-346.
Nicholls, J.G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Nichols, J. G. (1990). What is ability ans why are we mindful of it? A developmental perspective. In R.L. Steinberg & J. Kolligian, Jr. (Eds.), Competence considered(pp. 11-40). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Nicholls, J. G. (1992). The general and the specific in the development and expression of achievement motivation. In G.C. Roberts (Ed.), Motivation in sport and exercise (pp. 31-56). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Pedhazur, E.J. (1982). Multiple regression in behavioral research. New York: Holt, Rhinehart, & Winston.
Rainey, D.W., & Cunningham, H. (1988). Competitive trait anxiety in male and female college athletes. Research Quarterlyfor Exercise and Sport, S9, 244-247.
Ramirez, M., & Castaneda, A. A. (1974). Cultural democracy, bicogn itive development, and education. New York: Academic Press.
Reynolds, W.M. (1982). Development of a reliable and valid short form of the MarloweCrowne Social Desirability Scale. Jo urnal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 199-125.
Roberts, G.C. (1992). Motivation in sport and exercise. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics.
Roberts, G.C., Hall, H.K., Jackson, S.A., Kimiecik, J., & Tonymon, P. (1990). Goal perspectives and perceptions of the sport experience. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology, San Antonio, TX.
Ryan, R.M., Mims, V., & Koestner, R. (1983). The relationship of reward contingency and interpersonal context to intrinsic motivation: A review and test using cognitive evaluation theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 736-750.
Ryska, T. A. (in press). Effects of sport motivation on academic learning strategies and self-efficacy among male and female high school student-athletes. Journal of Sport Behavior.
Ryska, T. A., & Richey, V. (1999). Motivational goals, purposes of sport, and sportspersonship among Mexican-American female athletes. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Ryska, T. A., & Yin, Z. (1998). The role of acculturation in motivation among Mexican-American adolescent athletes [Abstract]. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 69, 98.
Smith, R.E., Smoll, F.L., & Schutz, R.W. (1990). Measurements and correlates of sport-specific cognitive and somatic trait anxiety: The Sport Anxiety Scale. Anxiety Research, 2,263-280.
Stoddard, E. R. (1973). Mexican Americans. New York: Random House.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (1996). Using multivariate statistics (3rd ed.). Harper Collins Publishers.
Vealey, R.S. (1986). Conceptualization of sport-confidence and competitive orientation: Preliminary investigation and instrument development. Journal of Sport Psychology, 8,221-246.
Vealey, R.S. (1988). Sport-confidence and competitive orientation: An addendum on scoring procedures and gender differences. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 10,471-478.
White, S.A., & Duda, J.L. (1991). The relationship of gender, level of sport involvement, and participation motivation to task and ego orientation. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 2S, 4-18.
White, S.A., Duda, J.L., & Sullivan, C. (1991). The relationship of gender, level of sport involvement, and participation motivation to goal orientation. Unpublished manuscript.
White, S.A., & Zellner, S.R. (1996). The relationship between goal orientation, beliefs about the causes of sport success, and trait anxiety among high school, intercollegiate, and recreational sport participants. The Sport Psychologist, 10, 58-72.
Whitehead, J. (1995). Multiple achievement orientations and participation in youth sport: A cultural and developmental perspective. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 26, 431-452.
Williams, L. (1994). Goal orientations and athletes' preferences for competence information sources. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 16, 416-430.
Wilson, P., & Ecklund, R.C. (1998). The relationship between competitive anxiety and self-presentational concerns. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 20, 81-97.…