Academic journal article
By Russell, William D.; Cox, Richard H.
Journal of Sport Behavior , Vol. 23, No. 4
The Anxiety Rating Scale-2 (ARS-2) is a shortened version of the Competitive State Anxiety lnventory-2 (CSA 1-2) that has recently displayed greater concurrent validity than the initial Anxiety Rating Scale (Cox & Robb, 1999). It was the purpose of this investigation to further determine the psychometric properties of the ARS-2 by examining the construct validity of the revised short-form inventory with individual sport athletes. Participants in this investigation were 302 college age intramural athletic participants in several individual sport paradigms (table tennis, one-on-one basketball, racquetball and badminton, pickleball, and wrestling). Results from a 2 x 2 (gender x outcome,) MANOVA revealed a significant main effect for outcome but no significant main effect for gender or gender by outcome interaction. Follow-up descriptive discriminant analysis structure coefficients for cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and confidence were .12, . 18, and . 90, respectively indicating that confidence was meaningf ul in predicting game outcome. Results demonstrate the construct validity of the ARS-2, in that winning and losing individual sport athletes could be discriminated as a function of scores on the ARS-2. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of short rating scales within precompetitive anxiety measurement and the future examination of the directionality concept.
The development of short-form inventories to assess precompetitive anxiety has shown much empirical progress as various investigations (Krane, 1994; Cox, Russell, & Robb, 1999) have developed short rating scales to be more practical, less intrusive, yet maintain strong psychometric properties in order to assess competitive state anxiety within a multidimensional context (Martens, Vealey, & Burton, 1990). Specifically, the Anxiety Rating Scale was developed as a short rating scale derived, from multiple regression procedures, from the Competitive State Anxiety-2 (CSAI-2; Martens et al., 1990) and was designed within a single statement format to assess precompetitive cognitive state anxiety, somatic state anxiety, and self-confidence. The concurrent validity of the ARS was established with team sport intramural athletes (Cox, Russell, & Robb, 1998; 1999) and with individual sport athletes (Cox, Reed, & Robb, 1997). Results of these investigations have shown the original ARS to be moderately correlated with the subscales of the CSAI-2 (.60 to .70)
Comparative correlations between anxiety subcomponents of the ARS and the Mental Readiness Form-Likert (MRF-L) with the cognitive and somatic state anxiety subscales of the CSAI-2 have consistently favored the ARS (Cox et al., 1997; Cox et al., 1998). Subsequent investigation of ARS revisions which have stemmed from concerns over response confusion in the original ARS have yielded larger concurrent validity coefficients with the CSAI-2 than the original anxiety rating scale.
In creating the three statements associated with cognitive state anxiety, somatic state anxiety, and state self-confidence, the ARS was developed using stepwise multiple regression procedures to identify the "best" three-element model for each subcomponent. These three elements were combined into an overall statement that represented either cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, or self-confidence, which were set to a 7-point Likert scale, allowing athletes to rate how they felt immediately prior to competition.
Critics of the ARS have indicated that ARS statements contain more than one psychological construct and that the subscale items may be misconstrued as representing more than one dimension. However, the argument with the ARS is that athletes are able to respond by providing a "global" response to their precompetitive anxiety. The Anxiety Rating Scale -2 (ARS-2) was revised by Cox and Robb (1999) by looking at the nine items for each CSAI-2 subcomponent and selecting three items most logically related to cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, or self-confidence. …