Academic journal article
By Zhang, James J.; Smith, Dennis W.; Brimer, Jennifer; Rodriguez, Augusto; Ocker, Liette B.; Killion, Lorraine E.; Lam, Eddie T. C.
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport , Vol. 72, No. 1
Smith, Dennis W.
Ocker, Liette B.
Killion, Lorraine E.
Lam, Eddie T. C.
James J. Zhang, Dennis W. Smith, Jennifer Brimer, Augusto Rodriquez, Liette B. Ocker, and Lorraine E. Killion, University of Houston, and Eddie T C. Lam, Cleveland State University
A growing number of children are left after school without adequate supervision. Data on youth violent crimes and teenage pregnancy are the highest during after-school hours. Academic literature supports the notion that communities are well served by carefully organized and supervised youth programs during after-school hours. These programs can extend social, educational, and recreational activities for children, while protecting them from an unhealthy environment. To achieve the objectives of after-school enrichment programs, it is critical to have quality curriculum, organization, implementation, supervision, and control of the program. Program evaluation by the participants would be essential to assess program quality in order to encourage continued youth participation. However, to date no well-developed evaluation scale with appropriate measurement properties has been found. The purpose of this study was to develop the Scale for After-School Program (SASP) through four steps: (a) review of literature, (b) open-ended surveys, (c) test of content validity, and (d) test of construct validity and reliability. This study was completed over a 2-year period. Based on a review of literature, the objectives of an after-school program generally fell into one or more of the following four aspects: enrichment (e.g., sports),academics (e.g., homework assistance), life skills (e.g., citizenship), and community (e.g., collaboration). …