The Effects of Multimedia Software Instruction and Lecture-Based Instruction on Learning and Teaching Cues of Manipulative Skills on Preservice Physical Education Teachers

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Abstract

The literature has shown inconsistent results in the use of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI). Teachers continue to use lectures as a commonplace mode for the delivery of information. Instructional experts suggest that a lecture format is not as effective as other formats due to the passive involvement of the learner (Shakarian, 1995), while the usefulness of computer-based instruction appears to be highly promising. This study examined the effects of a multimedia-based instructional strategy and lecture-based instruction on teaching cognitive components of manipulative skills to physical education majors in the Department of Health, Leisure and Exercise Science at a medium sized Southeastern university. Subjects were randomly assigned to the control group (N=13), a multimedia group (N=13) or a lecture group (N=18). The multimedia group received instruction on components of the overhand throw, catch and kick using a multimedia computer program while the lecture group received instruction via the traditional lecture method. The control group received no instruction on the selected skills. All subjects completed a pretest and posttest. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance with repeated measures indicated that significant differences existed between groups on a test of components and cue descriptors of manipulative skills. A series of one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post hoc test indicated that differences in scores existed between groups. Continued investigations examining the merits of multi-media-based instruction are needed. As the computer continues to make inroads in the instructional arena, it is prudent to study CAI as it relates to subject content areas and instructional applications, as well the design of software.

Computers have served as a tool since the early 1980s to augment the instructional processes in elementary school, high school, and higher education. As computers become more powerful and less expensive, instructional processes using multimedia software are becoming increasingly popular. Although emerging computer technology commands the attention of educators, traditional methods of instruction, such as lecture, remain a valued mainstay of instructional processes in institutions of higher learning. In considering the use of instructional methods, teachers should attempt to use the method which best meets their instructional objectives.

In the last decade, some instructional experts suggest that a lecture format is not as effective as other formats due to the passive involvement of the learner (Shakarian, 1995). Others assert that the traditional lecture method is not suited for the ever-expanding educational objectives of today's society, diversity of learners' needs, and the increasing volumes of information (Meyers & Jones, 1993). In today's society where there is an increasing emphasis on students to take ownership of learning processes, merits of the lecture approach to instruction is debatable while the usefulness of computer-based instruction appears to be warranted.

The relative effectiveness of lecture method of instruction as well other methods such as discussion, team teaching and peer teaching methods of instruction are discussed in the literature. McKeachie (1963) concluded that an evaluation of teaching methods must consider instruction goals. Kulik and Kulik (1979) and McKeachie (1963) both reviewed literature which compares the effectiveness of lecture and discussion methods of teaching on achievement as measured by the learning of factual information. These reviewers concluded that teaching by lecture is neither more nor less effective than teaching by the discussion method. Teachers continue to use lectures as a commonplace mode for the delivery of information

In recent years, educators have used computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to promote greater student involvement in learning activities and to promote increased access to learning material. …