Powers Held by the United States over Puerto Rico

Article excerpt

1. Power of military recruitment of all Puerto Ricans;

2. Forcible expropriation;

3. Power to involve Puerto Rico in the United States government's wars;

4. Imposition of tariffs and customs regulations;

5. Absolute power over Puerto Rico's foreign relations (with no representation by Puerto Ricans);

6. Imposition of U.S. monetary and postal systems;

7. Power over scheduling maritime and air fleets;

8. Power to regulate air transport: routes and service lines;

9. Control of air space;

10. Power to regulate and carry out foreign communications;

11. Imposition of U.S. nationality and citizenship and deprivation of the ability to display natural Puerto Rican citizenship (which has no international recognition). U.S. citizenship was imposed upon Puerto Ricans on March 2, 1917.

12. Power over matters relating to commercial and personal bankruptcy;

13. Power over immigration and emigration;

14. Power over foreigners;

15. Power to apply penalties and punishments for "federal" crimes, including the death penalty, with no rights of intervention by the colonial government;

16. Absolute power over territorial waters and coast guard services;

17. Power to pass judgment over the constitutionality of Puerto Rican laws;

18. …