Academic journal article Social Education , Vol. 66, No. 1
11. Terrorists hijack 4 jetliners. Two crash into the World Trade Center in New York City; one hits the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia; and one crashes in rural Pennsylvania as passengers thwart terrorists. Thousands are killed.
12. U.S. President George W. Bush requests support from NATO and logistical backing from Pakistan in possible future military action against Osama bin Laden and his terrorist organization, al Qaeda, centered in Afghanistan.
14. The U.S. Senate approves use of military force and unanimously sets aside $40 billion to go to war. Later, in the House, there is only one dissenting vote.
15. Residents of the Afghan capital of Kabul, and of other cities, begin fleeing in anticipation of U.S. bombing.
16. Bush notifies leaders of Pakistan, India, and Saudi Arabia of war intentions and receives "positive responses."
19. U.S. warplanes begin flying to bases in the Persian Gulf, Indian Ocean, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan.
20. Bush addresses the U.S. Congress, saying to the world, "Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists" in a "war on terrorism."
21. The Taliban, the Muslim fundamentalist militia that rules over 80 percent of Afghanistan, refuses to surrender Osama bin Laden to the United States.
22. Saudi Arabia balks at allowing U.S. planes to use airbases, but severs relations with the Taliban.
28. UN Security Council calls on all member countries to sever financial, political, and military ties to named terrorist groups.
29. Exiled Afghan monarch Mohammed Zahir Shah meets in Rome with Afghan tribal leaders and members of the U.S. Congress to forge a common front against the Taliban.
1. Car bomb set by Muslim Kashmiri separatists kills 38 people at the state legislature in Kashmir.
4. Bush commits an additional $300 million in humanitarian assistance to Afghanistan.
6. Bomb explodes on a street in Khobar, Saudi Arabia, killing one American and several other foreigners.
7. U.S. and British air forces begin bombing targets throughout Afghanistan, including points in the cities of Kabul and Kandahar. Pakistan President General Pervez Musharraf removes senior officers in the military and intelligence who helped create the Taliban militia.
9. U.S. threatens to attack Iraq if leader Saddam Hussein attempts to assist the Taliban.
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak voices support for U.S. war on terrorism. Northern Alliance militia capture some districts held by Taliban in northern Afghanistan.
10. Anti-U.S. demonstrations occur throughout Indonesia. Conference of 56 Islamic countries does not condemn U.S. war in Afghanistan, but warns U.S. not to attack other countries.
14. U.S. bombing of Taliban positions in Kabul hits food warehouse in error. Oxfam suspends all food convoys.
16. Strikes by U.S. warplanes and Northern Alliance ground fights against Taliban troops entrenched outside Mazar-i Sharif are ongoing.
17. Taliban soldiers seize UN food warehouses, disrupting distribution.
18. U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell pledges support for India in its conflict with Kashmir separatists.
19. Leaders of the European Union declare their support for U.S. military action in Afghanistan.
The UN reports that 10,000 Afghans have fled to Pakistan from Kandahar over the last week. 100 U.S. Army Special Forces troops enter southern Afghanistan, which is under Taliban rule.
20. Special Forces reach Taliban leader Mohammad Omar's vacated compound near Kandahar.
21. Northern Alliance urges U.S. to step up bombing of Taliban lines near Kabul
23. U.S. bombs Taliban troop positions, but errors hit residential areas of Herat and Kabul.
24. More than 1,000 Afghan tribal and militia leaders meet in Peshawar, Pakistan, to discuss their country's future, but key figures (such as the exiled king) boycott the meeting. …