THE U.S. ARMED FORCES face a changed paradigm of warfare. Ongoing counterterrorism (CT) and counterinsurgency (COIN) operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, and elsewhere reflect the tough challenges inherent in countering savage, extremist enemies in highly complex environments. We are fighting smart, adaptive, ruthless opponents who leverage globalization, employ asymmetric tactics, and conduct deliberately brutal, indiscriminate attacks on an unprecedented scale.
As part of the Army's efforts to increase full-spectrum operational capacity at the brigade combat team (BCT) level, Army intelligence is transforming its organization, training, and techniques to provide fused, all-source, "actionable" intelligence along tactically useful timelines to Soldiers and commanders. Four components are key to this transformation:
* Increasing military intelligence (MI) capacity and skills balance.
* Enabling distributed access to an all-source, flat, integrated network.
* Revitalizing Army human intelligence (HUMINT).
* Increasing intelligence readiness.
Increasing MI Capacity and Skills Balance
The complex, dynamic nature of warfare today makes it essential that BCTs have the ability to collect intelligence on all aspects of their environment. Each BCT and subordinate battalion must be able to rapidly detect and positively identify, track, and target enemy activities with minimal assistance from higher-level intelligence centers. Even more important, to understand norms, changes, linkages, and significance in near-real time, each BCT and battalion intelligence section must be able to rapidly fuse and visualize all sources of information, regardless of classification, on common geospatial displays.
The 1990s-era MI structure and skills mix at brigade and battalion levels are inadequate for today's demands, a shortfall painfully highlighted by wartime experiences since the 9/11 attacks. Aggressive efforts are now underway to significantly increase the number of MI collectors, intelligence synchronizers, and analysts at brigade and battalion levels. Maneuver battalion S2 (intelligence) sections have increased from 4 to 9 people; BCT S2 sections have more than doubled, from an average of 8 MI Soldiers in a BCT S2 section in 2001 to 21 Soldiers today; and there will be an additional increase, to almost 40 people, by 2011. Each transformed BCT has an assigned MI company with organic HUMINT, unmanned aerial vehicle, signals intelligence (SIGINT), and analysis platoons.
Even with these enhancements, wartime experience suggests that BCTs also require additional downward reinforcing intelligence support in highly demanding settings like Iraq and Afghanistan. Moreover, additional intelligence capabilities are required to work white-space regions, boundary areas, borders, and seams beyond the limits of BCT areas of responsibility. To accomplish these tasks, the Army is forming from 8 to 10 MI collection battalions heavily weighted with HUMINT source-handler and interrogator capabilities as well as advanced SIGINT collection and site exploitation teams well suited to combat in complex terrain. These purpose-built MI battalions form the core of new, multifunctional battlefield surveillance brigades (BfSB) designed for enhanced intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance operations in both conventional and irregular environments.
The Army is concurrently building four Joint Interrogation and Debriefing Center battalions to provide robust, expert interrogation capability at theater and/or joint task force levels in close coordination with military police detention forces. By 2013, the Army will add over 7,000 MI Soldiers to its ranks. More than 90 percent of that growth will be aligned with enhanced tactical collection and analysis. Army HUMINT capacity will increase more than any other intelligence discipline and will more than double in strength. Ongoing intelligence transformation will produce a better balanced, more capable, more modular MI force to meet the heavy demands facing Army and joint forces.
Increasing the number of MI Soldiers is necessary, but it will be insufficient unless the Army concurrently connects them to the full power of modern data networks and gives them the training and software tools to mine and manipulate large volumes of data along tactically useful timelines. Today's complex environments make it essential that MI Soldiers and combat leaders understand frequently ambiguous intelligence reporting within the context of "all there is to know" about places, things, and related events-trie complete "memory" of all that is knowable as a function of past reporting from any source.
To be effective on today's complex battlefields, MI Soldiers must be able to rapidly access and search large data holdings and visualize the results on operationally relevant imagery and geospatial products for rapid problem-solving. Relevant context for analysis includes information reported by intelligence, tactical, and other sources regardless of classification or originator. Seeing bits and pieces of data within a rich, layered context, aided by widely available advanced software tools, enables analysts to recognize otherwise hidden linkages and relationships. All of this converges on the ground to trigger action to confirm or deny leads and generate actionable intelligence-the provision of a high level of shared situational understanding-delivered with the speed, accuracy, and timeliness necessary for commanders and Soldiers to operate at their highest potential and conduct successful operations.
Army military intelligence is aggressively working to field these flat-network capabilities down to battalion level via the Distributed Common Ground System-Army (DCGS-A) program, which is integrated with Army G3 battle command initiatives to provide a common operating picture for commanders. The program builds on the pioneering data-fusion work the U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) has accomplished since 2001, Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence [USD(I)]-sponsored experiments conducted in South Korea since 2002, and USD(I)-supported efforts to employ proven flat-network analysis capabilities on a distributed basis in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Dubbed the "Joint Intelligence Operations Capability-Iraq (JIOC-I)," the program was formally transitioned into the DCGS-A program of record in June 2006. Wartime supplemental funding has enabled fielding of DCGS-A capabilities to units in Iraq and Afghanistan 2 years earlier than would otherwise have been possible. The results have been powerful. DCGS-A remains a top Army intelligence transformation priority and is a forcing function for the key net-centric sharing and software tool solutions necessary for success in today's complex operational domains. DCGS-A solutions also thread directly into enhanced situational awareness and targeting capabilities embedded in the Army's Future Combat System.
Close access HUMINT collection (military source operations, interrogation, and counterintelligence) provides critical capabilities needed for successful operations, particularly at the BCT level and below, where recurring interface with the local population and other sources generates information leads, threat warnings, and environmental understanding not available through any other means. HUMINT collection is a nonnegotiable ingredient for effective CT and COIN operations.
Wartime lessons learned confirm the pressing need for an increased HUMINT capacity. Action is well underway to establish HUMINT platoons in every MI company at the BCT level, and two robust HUMINT companies are being incorporated into every BfSB MI battalion, providing an unprecedented level of tactical HUMINT capability. Experienced HUMINT planning and management sections (S2X) have been added at BCT and division levels. HUMINT training is also being expanded and strengthened through collaboration between the U.S. Army Intelligence Center and School (USAIC) and the Defense Intelligence Agency's (DIA's) Defense HUMINT Management Office (DHMO). DHMO leaders are establishing joint HUMINT training standards for military-source operations and interrogation training courses, and a Joint HUMINT Training Center of Excellence is being established at the USAIC complex at Fort Huachuca, Arizona.
Concurrent efforts are also underway to increase intelligence readiness and effectiveness across Army forces. Part of this derives from better, more comprehensive preparation for military operations within complex cultural environments; a key corollary piece relates to changing the way Soldiers think about intelligence and their role in generating intelligence. No mechanical collection device will ever match the observation and reasoning power of a trained Soldier: with a unique ability to recognize and report useful information gained from close access into otherwise denied areas, he is the ultimate sensor.
The Army is making a concerted effort to better prepare Soldiers for their roles and to capitalize on the results. Four ongoing programs are key to this effort: the Every Soldier is a Sensor (ES2) program, cultural-awareness training, language training, and the INSCOM "foundry" program.
ES2 program. The ES2 program encompasses a range of training initiatives designed to inculcate tactical curiosity in Soldiers at all levels across the force and drive significantly enhanced reporting about the environment, baseline norms, changes, personalities, relationships, and other tactically relevant information key to achieving the situational understanding so important in warfare against adaptive enemies. Observing and noting day-to-day routines and understanding why things change; understanding the role people play within their villages and tribes; and knowing how goods, resources, and services are provided and who controls them are critical pieces that provide rich context for understanding (often ambiguous) intelligence reporting.
ES2 training modules begin at the basic-entry level and are reinforced by memory reinforcement exercises integrated into normal training. An ES2 computer simulation using contemporary tactical settings reinforces ES2 observation and reporting skills at the individual Soldier level. The Every Soldier is a Sensor Simulation (ES3) pilot program is now in operation at the Army's largest entry-level training center at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, and it shows promising results.1 More advanced training blocks are being incorporated into noncommissioned officer and officer training courses and reinforced in evaluated collective unit training at Army combined training centers. The doctrinal framework for ES2 is being integrated into key tactical operations and intelligence training manuals.
Cultural-awareness training. Cultural-awareness training complements ES2 by helping Soldiers understand the complex, interwoven dynamics of foreign societies, religions, and regions. USAIC builds and exports cultural awareness training packages to all U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command schools and provides specially trained cultural awareness mobile training teams to help forces prepare for deployment to Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. USAIC also manages the wartime employment of specially recruited and trained foreign-born translator-aide Soldiers to embed a trusted source of cultural expertise into committed forces.2
Language training. Language training, which relates directly to cultural savvy and understanding, is receiving unprecedented emphasis. The Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center (DLIFLC) in Monterey, California, aggressively supports commanders preparing for deployment and enhances USAIC cultural awareness efforts through mobile training team language instruction, video teletraining sessions, and expanded formal linguist training tailored for wartime needs. Army Forces Command supplements DLIFLC training through the use of native contract instructors at home station as well.
The INSCOM foundry program. The INSCOM foundry program provides tactical intelligence units with one-stop shopping assistance for advanced skills training beyond those the USAIC provides or what is normally available to units in garrison. With intelligence brigades located in every theater, and in close partnership with the National Security Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, DIA, and others, INSCOM is uniquely suited to integrate live-environment and specialized certifications into busy predeployment preparation schedules. This highly successful program, formally initiated in early 2006, continues to provide responsive support to the warfighter.
Focus on the Soldier
The Army is blessed with the finest Soldiers America has ever produced. We owe them the best possible tools, the most complete information available, and our dedicated, relentless support as they execute tough wartime and contingency missions worldwide. Army military intelligence, as part of the joint intelligence team, is taking aggressive action to meet these challenges. The intelligence programs and initiatives outlined here constitute the heart of the Army Intelligence Campaign Plan and Army MI transformation. Significantly enhanced situational awareness by commanders and actionable intelligence available along tactically useful timelines are the objectives and principal measures of merit. Army intelligence continues to push the envelope in close collaboration with joint, USD(I), and national partners.
A Human Intelligence Team member from the 311th MI Battalion, 101st Airborne Division, contacts Iraqi civilians.
1. Soldiers can access ES3 worldwide via the Army Knowledge Online (AKO) website,
2. The Army's newly created military occupational specialty, 09L, is used to recruit and train foreign-born Soldiers to act as translator-aides who can provide language proficiency and help enhance cultural awareness.
Lieutenant General John F. Kimmons, U.S. Army
Lieutenant General John F. Kimmons, U.S. Amy, has been the U.S. Army Deputy Chief of Staff, G-2 (Intelligence), at the Pentagon since August 2005. From July 2003 to July 2005, he commanded the U.S. Amy Intelligence and Security Command. He received a B.A. from The Citadel and an M.B.A. from the University of Oklahoma, and he is a graduate of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College and the Army War College.…