NGOs and Civil Society under the Context of Humanistic Community Construction: Practice and Review of China/ORGANISATIONS NON GOUVERNEMENTALES ET LA SOCIETE CIVILE DANS LE CONTEXTE DE LA CONSTRUCTION DE COMMUNAUTE HUMANISTE : PRATIQUE ET REVUE DE LA CHINE

Article excerpt

Abstract:

Since the mid 1980's, the issue of community construction in China has been put on the agenda for governments of various levels. The shift from community service to community construction witness the development of community management as well as the Chinese social reform. The humanistic community construction has become the cornerstone for social reform, and also an important practice to Chinese harmonious society. In the future social and economic frame, the grass-root level self-government organizations, community organizations, social organizations will contribute to most nongovernmental, nonprofit social institutions. Neither is it a sheer governmental behavior, nor is a sheer civil activity. The community construction consists of various community actors and community forces. The process is a trinity of the government, nongovernmental organizations and the residents. The nongovernmental organizations, especially the voluntary and self-governmental organizations, will promote the participatory democracy in the community management. The cultivation of nongovernmental organizations and the self-governmental institutions would be translated into the future government management pattern of Chinese society.

Key words: nongovernmental organization, humanistic community construction, civil society

Résumé: Depuis le milieu des années 1980, le problème de la construction de communautés a déja été mis à l'ordre du jour des gouvernements à divers niveaux. Le changment du service de communauté en construction de commmunauté témoigne du développement de la gestion de communauté et la réforme sociale chinoise. La construction de communauté humaniste est devenue la base de la réforme sociale et une pratique importante pour la société harmonieuse de la Chine. Dans le futur cadre social et économique, les organisations autonomes, communautaires et sociales vont contribuer aux institutions non gouvernementales et non lucratives. Ce n'est ni une action gouvernementale pure ni une activité civile pure. La construction de communauté consiste en divers acteurs et forces communautaires. Son processus est la trinité du gouvernement, des organisations non gouvernementales et des habitants. Les organisations non gouvernementales, surtout les volontaires et les organisations autonomes, pourraient promouvoir la démocratie dans la gestion de communauté. Le développement des organisations non gouvernementales et institutions autonomes pourrait être transformé en modèle futur de la gestion gouvernemental de la société chinoise.

Mots-Clés: organisation non gouvernementale, construction de communauté humaniste, société civile

1.

Since the mid 1980's, the issue of community construction in China has been put on the agenda for governments of various levels. Since 1996, most of the large cities in China have witnessed an extraordinary fashion of community construction, which is followed by a relatively amazing passion. The Shanghai Municipal Government, which acted as the bull weither, put forward the reform scenario concluded as "Bi-level government with tri-level administration" in the Shanghai Municipal City Work Meeting, and later that scenario was readjusted as "Bi-level government with tri-level administration and quadruple-level networks" in 1998, therefore, Shanghai initiated the reform of the city administration system. In the end of 1998, Beijing and Guangzhou put the assumption that the work of neighborhood administration system was the essential issue for the promotion of the city administration by modern means.3 Both the community service in the elementary period and the community construction of the present period reveal the deepening of our comprehension of the community issue in China, as well as that of the social reform in China. The construction of humanistic community should be linked with the social reform in China. At present, the humanistic community construction has functioned as the starting point of the general social reform in China, even an important move towards the construction of a harmonious society in China. …