A Meta Analysis on the Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction: Turkey Sample

Article excerpt

Abstract

Studies focusing on the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction have been growing recently in Turkey. In this research, quantitative studies comparing the effectiveness of computer- assisted instruction to traditional teaching method and conducted between 1998 and 2007 are studied by meta analysis. Seventy eight studies that have eligible data were combined with meta analytical methods by coding protocol from the 422 master's and doctoral degree and 124 articles. As a result for the study, the effect size of computer-assisted instruction method for academic achievement calculated 1.048. This is large scale according to Thalheimer and Cook, large and Cohen, Welkowitz and Ewen (2000). Recommendations were made based on the results of the study.

Keywords

Computer- Assisted Instruction, Computer- Based Education, Meta-analysis, Effectiveness, Effect Size

The effectiveness of CAI as compared to traditional instruction has been investigated for decades. Various studies have been conducted at different educational levels and in various areas of instruction (Demirer, 2006; Gençtürk, 2003; Katircioglu and Kazanci, 2003; Tutaysalgir, 2006; Zhou, Brouwer, Nocente and Martin, 2005). Numerous studies have investigated the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction among different samples (Chang, 2002; Hacker and Sova, 1998; Hollingsworth and Hoover, 2001; Jacoby, 2005; Wong, 2001).

Both methods have unique features but either one may be used to provide instruction for a particular learning experience. This raises the question of which is the more effective method for a better learning experience. One way to answer this question would be to compare the two methods by measuring the respective gains in learning. Hence, there have been numerous studies of computerized instruction's effectiveness (Yaakub, 1998).

There is a need for a meta-analytic effect analysis of research carried out in Turkey in order to reveal the effectiveness of computerassisted instruction from a broader point of view. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to bring the bigger picture to light by calculating the effect size of academic success in lessons where computer assisted instruction is used. In order to analyze the impact of computer- assisted instruction 78 research studies were identified. The research question that guided the analysis was 'Does computer- assisted instruction have a positive impact on learners' academic success when compared to traditional teaching method?'

Methods

Meta-analytic effect analysis was used in order to calculate the effect size of computer-assisted instruction on academic success. Meta- analysis can be defined as an analysis of previous analyses and is a statistical method used to combine the results of similar studies (Lyons, n.d; Ergene, 2003).

Data Collection

For meta-analysis, master's theses, doctoral dissertations, published articles, electronic catalogues of university libraries, and symposium proceedings were used as sources of data. Initially, Turkish and English keywords were used to search online thesis centre of 'The Council of Higher Education National Thesis Center.' The search using keywords such as 'bilgisayar destekli egitim', 'bilgisayar destekli ögretim', 'bilgisayar destekli ögrenme', ' computer based learning', 'computer- assisted teaching', 'computer- based training' revealed a total of 378 studies composed of 155 master's theses and 63 doctoral dissertations. As a result, the sample for the research was finalized and 34 studies on the effectiveness of computer- assisted instruction were included in meta-analysis.

Inclusion Criteria

The following criteria were used for the selection of studies to be included in the current research (fiahin, 2005, 33):

Criterion 1: Time interval of the studies to be included in metaanalysis.

Studies must be conducted in the last decade (1998-2007).

Criterion 2: Published and unpublished resources. …