Factors Sustaining Human Trafficking in the Contemporary Society: Psychological Implications

Article excerpt

Abstract

Factors sustaining human trafficking in the contemporary society were investigated. One hundred and forty participants were used in generating the items that formed the questionnaire. While four hundred participants were used for the main study, seven leading factors were endorsed by majority of the participants as sustaining human trafficking. Psychological implications, aftermath of human trafficking were highlighted and suggestions for salvaging the deplorable situation of human trafficking were made.

Introduction:

Dehumanization of people and lives has taken different forms or patterns. Human trafficking is an illegal business transaction of human beings. Human trafficking is the rejuvenation of slave trade. The exercise is slavery because the traffickers use force, violence, threats and other forms of coercion to force the victims to work in any type of engagement against their will. The traffickers control the freedom and movements of the victims and under duress, force them to life of servitude; prostitution and beggary.

European Union Council Directive (2002), on anti-slavery observes that human trafficking involves men, women, youth, children and the old. Human trafficking is the act of illegally carrying or transferring people across the borders. It is a process whereby human beings are illegally carried out of their homes, tribes, races and countries to unknown places, where they cannot trace their way back. Human trafficking is becoming a cankerworm that is eating into the fabrics of the human rights, which negatively influences normal physical, social, mental and moral growth and development of human beings. It is this perplexing thought provoking social ill that is negating the freedom of human rights and life and indirectly impinging on the normal growth and development as well as national, that this study is involved in.

The Personality of those Trafficked

European Union council directives (2002) state that men, women, youth, children and the old are victims of this criminal game. But the lucky escapees attest that women and children seem to be the more target group because of their marginalization and limited economic resources. Others are people from minority ethnic groups, war affected areas and countries, refugees and illegal migrants. Also people with little or no education. Young girls who are school drop outs and who go after flashy issues. People who do not know their legal rights as human beings, humans in their varying developmental stages, infants, teenagers, early adults, middle adults and late adults in their sixties and above.

Reasons for Human Trafficking:

The lucky escaped victims indicated that human trafficking is carried for a variety of reasons. Prostitution is not the only reason people are trafficked. Human beings are moved to different places and environments according to needs and demands. For instance, West African children are recruited into a range of exploitative work and they are moved about illegally throughout the region. Children are trafficking from Nigeria to Spain as baby/ sitters. Young girls are trafficked from Nigeria into Italy for forced professional prostitution. The escapees lamented that if the victims had opted for prostitution business, of which at the end of the deed they collect whatever wage accrue from it, they would not regret it. But the most humiliating aspect of this business is that at the end of the deed or the day the treatment given to them does not worth the sacrifices. Other reasons for human trafficking include:

Some of the women (girls) are forced into entertainment industry, to perform any kind of show. Some are deployed in the sweatshops, illegal adoption of children for some. Some of them are used for organ transplanting and forced marriages. Some are used for mail-order brides and other services. The men are mainly engaged in tug of war jobs and in the farms. Some victims are forced to labour in construction and drug trafficking. …