Psychology of Male and Female Communicative Activity

Article excerpt

The article features a brief overview of theoretical and empirical studies in communication psychology and sociability of men and women, boys and girls. Russian and foreign studies are summarized to point out that girls and women place greater emphasis on communication and interpersonal relations than do boys and men. Moreover, female communication is more emotional. The article presents the results of the author's own empirical study of male and female communicative activity. Communicative activity is viewed as a complex psychological phenomenon, a degree of the subject's willingness to interact. Communicative activity was studied with the test proposed by the Russian psychologist, Krupnov, and designed to detect the following components of communicative activity: dynamic (natural), emotional, motivational, cognitive, regulatory, productive, and two sorts of communication difficulties (operational and personal). Gender differences in communicative activity are shown on a sample of 480 participants aged 18-40 (240 men and 240 women). The article then describes communicative styles of adolescents (130 boys and 130 girls, aged 19-24). Various communicative styles are featured, including "energetic, businesslike," "conformal, emotional," "diplomatic, externally oriented" for boys and "energetic, sociable," "emotional, difficult," and "complaisant, expressive" for girls. Every person's individuality and gender identity are shown to impact their communicative style.

Keywords: communicative activity, gender, integral individuality, style of communicative activity

El artículo presenta una revisión de los estudios teóricos y empíricos de la psicología de la comunicación y la sociabilidad de hombres y mujeres, chicos y chicas. Se resumen estudios rusos y extranjeros y se indica que chicas y mujeres ponen mayor énfasis en la comunicación y en las relaciones interpersonales que los chicos y hombres. Además, la comunicación femenina es más emotiva. El artículo presenta los resultados del estudio de la autora sobre la actividad comunicativa de varones y mujeres. La actividad comunicativa se ve como un fenómeno complejo psicológico, un grado de la voluntad del sujeto a interactuar. Se estudió la actividad comunicativa con el test propuesto por al psicólogo ruso, Krupnov, diseñado para detectar los siguientes componentes de la actividad comunicativa: dinámico (natural), emocional, motivacional, cognitivo, regulativo, productivo, y dos tipos de dificultades de comunicación (operacional y personal). Se observan las diferencias de género en la actividad comunicativa en una muestra de 480 participantes de edades entre 18-40 años (240 varones y 240 mujeres). El artículo describe estilos comunicativos de adolescentes (130 chicos y 130 chicas, edades entre 19-24). Se observan varios estilos comunicativos, incluyendo "energético" "práctico [businesslike]," "conformista, emocional," "diplomático, orientado externamente" para chicos y "energético, sociable," "emocional, difícil," y "complaciente, expresivo" para chicas. Se observa que la individualidad e identidad de género afectan el estilo comunicativo de las personas.

Palabras clave: actividad comunicativa, género, individualidad integral, estilo de actividad comunicativa

Psychology in Russia has long been "sexless," with studies of gender differences scarce. Today, gender issues are highly relevant and actively discussed by the scientific community. The gender approach in humanistic sciences is quickly developing, although there is still some heterochronism in various sciences. Gender issues have also become highly relevant for practical psychologists.

Attention to gender differences and relations between men and women is not surprising. On the one hand, women are becoming increasingly representative in various professional spheres in Russia, while, on the other hand, stereotypes-traditional unfair social prejudices based on sex-still have negative impact on women, leading to inferiority complex and lower self-esteem. …