Ethical Dimensions of Pain Management and Physician-Patient Relationships

Article excerpt

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

In biophilic sketching terms of what epistemic theories of maladies and nosologic theories of diseases involve in tautological ethical theories of clinical interrelationships between physicians and patients, we have accounted their assessments with the span boundaries of materialistic, socialistic, and spiritualistic conventional value systems of physicians' professional codes of ethics and natural and civic rights of patients. Our objectives in this paper are, first, to define what we mean by tautological and epistemological interpretations concerning both patients and physicians value systems. Second, we have indicated that diseases are essentially viewed as extrinsic affective causes and maladies are intrinsic effective consequences that are related to patients' illnesses and sicknesses within biosophical and biophilic ethical boundaries of "vitalism" and "naturalism" view points. Third, we have analyzed different philosophical foundations of alternative medicine in relationships among scientific, pragmatic, and spiritual value systems in Occidental and Oriental oriented cultures. Fourth, we have analyzed the levels of tolerance of pain and suffering among different groups of patients.

Keywords: Clinical Intervention, Psychosomatic, Life, Death, multiculturalization, Meta-Knowledge, Experiential, Experimental, and Expediential Research, Medical logic, Biosciences, Biotechnology, Brain Death, Vegetable-Life, Patients' rights, Ethical Medical Stewardship, Biosophy, Biophilia

INTRODUCTION

Biosophy (a biosystem of thought) and/or biophilia (a thoughtful tendency towards natural life) are the holistic bedrocks of medical ethics. They are global innate affinity of good faith for the sanctity of life and the beauty of the synergistic natural and artificial world in which we live in. Such incorporated visionary thoughts encompass global medical ethics to integrate human life and the environmental contradictory conditions of the realm of existence. Within such a thoughtful deliberation, two phenomena are viewed as the basic foundation for human existence: (1) tautological of ethical and epistemological of moral dimensions of life and (2) nosologic conditions of scientific thoughts that deal with orderly rating or classifying maladies and diseases. In biophilic sketching terms of what nosologic theories of maladies and diseases involve, we first have defined what we mean by tautological ethical and epistemological moral approaches with accounts of maladies and diseases explanations. Second, we have argued that diseases are essentially viewed as extrinsic affective causes, and maladies are intrinsic effective consequences that are related to patients' illnesses and sicknesses within biosophical and biophilic boundaries of "vitalism" and "naturalism" view points. For effective development of ideas, theories, and paradigms of existence, a clear use of terms is necessary. So in terms of ethical and moral relationships between physicians and patients in pain and suffering management clinics customary professional relationships are to begin with definitions of these terms. Originally, to define something within a scientific framework meant to set limit on it. Tautological relationships between physicians and patients have broad intents of two kinds: (1) the view that the practice of medicine is an art and regards it as roughly ontological (ontology refers to knowledge of the nature of the world around us) and (2) the view that the practice of medicine is a science and regards it as roughly epistemic (epistemology has to do with scientific problem-solving of knowledge). Parhizgar and Parhizgar (2008: 223) indicated:

The term art is the production or expression of what is creative, beautiful, appealing, and/or of what is more than ordinary significant. Arts are the establishment of human unity in variety, similarity, proximity, and connectivity in bounded perceptions. Arts are expository of an individual's emotional conceptions, sensational feelings, and critical thinking to explain or manifest something in specific causal forms. …