The Impacts of Structural and Psychological Empowerment on Burnout: A Research on Staff Nurses in Turkish State Hospitals/LES IMPACTS DE L'EMPOWERMENT STRUCTUREL ET PSYCHOLOGIQUE SUR L'ÉPUISEMENT: UNE RECHERCHE SUR LE PERSONNEL INFIRMIER DANS LES HÔPITAUX EN TURQUIE

Article excerpt

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the level of perceived structural and psychological empowerment and the level of burnout among nurses in health service organizations. Data for the present study were taken from the survey of state hospital nurses. This study employs a series of multiple regression analyses in order to address the effect of the level of empowerment on the level of burnout-as well as the effect of the level of each dimension of structural empowerment and psychological empowerment on the each dimension of burnout. The results indicate that nurses who perceive higher level psychological empowerment and lower level structural empowerment and burnout. In addition to the effect of empowerment or the dimensions of empowerment, it was found that various background factors influence the level of burnout perceived by nurses in the workplace.

Keywords: Structural Empowerment; Psychological Empowerment; Burnout; Nurses; State Hospital; Turkey

Résumé: L'objectif de cette étude est d'examiner la relation entre !'empowerment structurel et psychologique perçu et le niveau d'épuisement professionnel chez les infirmiers au sein des organisations de services de santé. Les données dans la présente étude ont été tirées de l'enquête sur les infirmiers des hôpitaux nationaux. Cette étude emploie une série d'analyses de régression multiples, afin de contrer les effets du niveau de !'empowerment sur le niveau d'épuisement-ainsi que l'effet du niveau de chaque dimension de !'empowerment structurel et psychologique de chaque dimension de l'épuisement professionnel. Les résultats indiquent que les infirmiers qui perçoivent un niveau de !'empowerment psychologique plus élevé et un niveau de !'empowerment plus bas sont plus faciles à être épuisés. En plus de l'effet de !'empowerment ou des dimensions de !'empowerment, il a été constaté que des facteurs divers liés au contexte influençaient le niveau d'épuisement perçu par les infirmiers en milieu de travail.

Mots-clés: empowerment structurel; empowerment psychologique; épuisement; hôpital national; Turquie

INTRODUCTION

Burnout, which is stated to be a professional hazard (Fraudenberg, 1974), is seen as imminent in terms of both individuals and organizations. Defined as the decrease in the amount of psychological and physical energy (Maslach, 2003), burnout decreases or increases depending on the personal and organizational stress factors. In other words, it is thought to be a negative result of the interactions between person and work atmosphere (Ashforth & Lee, 1997; Budak & Surgevil, 2005; Ozdemír, Kilic, Özdemir, Öztürk & Siimer, 2003; Singh, Goolsby & Rhoads, 1994).

Burnout is a fact seen more in the public workers who have to spend an important amount of their time with other people. These workers face the risk of chronic stress and burnout. Burnout is defined as a syndrome seen among the people who serve support service to the public and a syndrome including emotional depletion, desensitization and decrease in the personal success (Maslach & Jackson, 1981).

The reasons of burnout can be classified as environmental and/or personal factors. The environmental factors that cause burnout may be excessive work load, control, awards, ownership, justice, and values (Budak & Surgevil, 2005); while personal factors may be personality, control focus, efficiency level, expectations, and demographic features (Uysal, 2007).

Apart from the factors stated above, thought to be significant relations between marital status, length of work, social support, family structure, responsibility, clearness, emotional stability, and burnout (Ari ve Bal, 2008). Burnout is linked to these single factors; it appears as a result of the interactions between these factors, and as well.

While Fraudenberger (1974) handle burnout with its emotional side, Maslach and Jackson (1981) term it as three independent sides being emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and decrease in sense of personal accomplishment. …