Application of Hellison's Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model in Physical Education to Improve Self-Efficacy for Adolescents at Risk of Dropping-Out of School

Article excerpt

This study evaluated improvement in self-efficacy and personal and social responsibility among at-risk of dropping-out of school adolescents participating in a program in which Hellison's Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model was applied in physical education classes during the course of an academic year. Thirty atrisk adolescents aged 13-14 years old (23 boys, 7 girls) were assigned to an intervention group (12 boys and 3 girls) or a comparison group (11 boys, 4 girls), the latter of which did not participate in the program. Quantitative results showed a significant improvement in the students' self-efficacy for enlisting social resources and in self-efficacy for self-regulated learning. Qualitative results showed an improvement in responsibility behaviors of participants in the intervention group. This suggests that the model could be effective for improving psychological and social development in at-risk adolescents, and that physical education classes may be an appropriate arena for working with these young people.

Keywords: at-risk adolescents, personal and social responsibility, self-efficacy, physical education.

Este estudio evaluó la mejora en autoeficacia y responsabilidad personal y social de un grupo de adolescentes en riesgo de abandono escolar que participaron en un programa basado en el Modelo de Enseñanza de Responsabilidad Personal y Social de Hellison, durante las clases de educación física, a lo largo de un curso académico. La muestra estuvo compuesta por treinta adolescentes de 13 a 14 años de edad (23 chicos, 7 chicas). De ellos, 12 chicos y 3 chicas fueron asignados a un grupo de intervención, y 11 chicos y 4 chicas formaron el grupo de comparación, los cuales no participaron en el programa. Los resultados cuantitativos mostraron una mejora significativa en la autoeficacia de los alumnos para conseguir recursos sociales y en la autoeficacia para el aprendizaje autorregulado. Los análisis cualitativos mostraron que los alumnos del grupo de intervención apreciaron mejoras en su conducta responsable y en la responsabilidad de sus iguales. Esto sugiere que el modelo puede ser efectivo para mejorar el desarrollo psicológico y social de los adolescentes en riesgo, y que las clases de educación física pueden ser un marco apropiado para trabajar con estos jóvenes.

Palabras clave: adolescentes en riego, responsabilidad personal y social, autoeficacia, educación física.

Adolescence is a transitional period during which important physical, psychological and social changes take place (Steinberg, 1993). The term "at-risk" is imprecise when applied to adolescents, but a suitable definition within this context is the unlikelihood of acquiring the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to become successful adults and, specifically, the exhibition of behavior that makes graduation from high school unlikely (Herr, 1989; Collingwood, 1997).

During the twentieth century, the life experiences of adolescents changed substantially. Nowadays they have more access to drugs and are more exposed to electronic media, which bombards them with messages about fashion, money, fame and violence (Weissberg, Kumpfer, & Seligman, 2003). Teachers are now having to cope with increasingly more angry, violent adolescents in the classroom; students who lack social and emotional competencies (Weisberg et al., 2003). The perceived need to promote positive youth development in this population has increased over the past 30 years, and a growing number of these programs are based on sport and physical activity (Cecchini, Montero, Alonso, Izquierdo, & Contreras, 2007; Collingwood, 1996; Danish, Forneris, & Wallace, 2005; Petitpas, Cornelius, Van Raalte, & Jones, 2005; Sandford, Armour, & Warmington, 2006).

Hellison's Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model (TPSR) (1985, 1995, & 2003) emphasizes the need to teach, through sports and physical activity, values and behavior that can contribute to the positive development of students' lives. …