Beijing Service Sector and Its Demand Structure: Changes and Impact A Comparative Analysis Based on Regional Input-Output Table/SECTEUR DES SERVICES DE BEIJING ET SA STRUCTURE DE DEMANDE: CHANGEMENTS ET IMPACTS UNE ANALYSE COMPARATIVE FONDÉE SUR LE TABLEAU D'IMPORT-EXPORT RÉGIONAL

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Abstract: The mode of economic growth and industrial structure of Beijing city is an exceptional case in China. By utilizing the regional input-output table, the comparison research reveals that the remarkable transformation of demand structure in service sector contributes greatly to its rapid development in Beijing. The statistics show that the outflow rate of service sectors has increased by 17% in the final demand. It proves that Beijing's radiating capacity to the rest of China has much strengthened and that the service sector gives tremendous impetus to other industries. In comparison with that of Washington State of the United States, the demand structure of Beijing's service sector changes in regular proportion to the usual rule and shows a similar tendency to that of developed countries.

Key words: service sector; demand structure; input-output table; output requirement coefficient

Résumé: Le mode de croissance économique et la structure industrielle de la ville de Beijing est un cas exceptionnel en Chine. En utilisant le tableau d'import-export régional, la recherche de comparaison révèle que la transformation remarquable de la structure dedemande dans le secteur des services contribue grandement à son développement rapide à Beijing. Les statistiques montrent que le taux d'exportation du secteur des services a augmenté de 17% dans la demande finale. Cela prouve que la capacité radiatrice de Pékin au reste de la Chine a été renforcé et que le secteur des services donne une impulsion considérable à d'autres industries. En comparaison avec celle de Washington aux États-Unis, la structure de demande du secteur des services de Pékin change en proportion régulière à la règle habituelle et montre une tendance similaire à celle des pays développés.

Mots-clés: secteur des services; structure de demande; tableau d'import-export; indicateurs productifs

1. INTRODUCTION

Despite the remarkable achievements of the manufacture industry over the last three decades, the mode of Chinese economic growth suffers from being on the lower end of production chain and the heavy environmental pressure, among many others. Just as Wu Jing-lian points out, these problems are mainly related with the underdevelopment of service sector, especially of productive service sector (Wu, 2006).

As indicated by Figure 1, the period since 1978 has been witnessing the substantial growth of China's service industry, with the rate of annual increase as 1 1.4%, its proportion in GDP rising from 23.9% in 1978 to 39.4% in 2006. Even so, by comparison with the developed countries, or some low & middle-income developing countries, the service sector of China still much lags behind. This is why it is necessary to accelerate the growth of productive service sector and promote the integration of service industry and manufacture industry for the sustainable economic growth and the transformation of growth mode of China's economy (Wu, 2006). This has been reiterated on terms of national policies. The newly issued Eleventh Five-Year National Program and Proposals On Speeding up the Growth of Service Sector by National Council both make it clear to develop service sector into a strategically important industry of China's national economy.

The situation of Beijing's service sector, however, is an exception to the overall sluggishness. Just as Figure 1 shows, Guangdong, Shanghai, Zhejiang and Beijing all had the similar proportion of service sector by the beginning of reform and opening-up period. The gap between Beijing and other regions has been widened since the 1990s. By the year 2006 the proportion of service sector of Beijing reached 70.9%, about 30% higher than the national average, being close to the level of the developed countries. Only Shanghai in the figure reached 50%, while the rest regions 40%. If Guangdong in Pearl River Delta, Shanghai and Zhejiang in Yangtze River Delta demonstrate the typical mode of Chinese economic growth, the case of Beijing shows what China's productive restructuring heads for in the future. …