An Evaluation of Instructional Strategies Used in Hiv/aids Preventive Education in Lagos Island Schools

Article excerpt

Abstract

The article reports the findings of an investigation into the effects of eight HIV/AIDS instructional strategies on JSS and SSS Students' knowledge, attitude and intentions about future sexual behaviour. Construct validity of the 12-item attitude scale was tested using factor analysis. Cronbach's alpha was utilised to determine the internal reliability of the scale. The alpha level was 0.8. The responses were analysed using one-way analysis of variance. In addition, the analysis for dichotomous variable was essentially a t-test. Significance among groups was assessed using Turkey when variables were not dichotomous.

The HIV/AIDS preventive education provided to students was very effective in increasing levels of knowledge, tolerant attitudes and healthy future behavioural intention of JSS and SSS Students in Lagos Island, Lagos State. In all cases, the post-treatment group had significantly higher knowledge; attitude and future intended sexual score than did other groups. In the light of the findings, appropriate suggestions were made to remedy the situation and implications for further research were generated.

KEY WORDS:

HIV/AIDS, HIV Infection, Epidemic, Instructional Strategies & Preventive Education

Introduction

The Nigeria Health Digest of March 1992 reveals that the origin of AIDS has become a matter of intense international debate. Being a new disease, there has been several theories, guesses, and hypotheses as to the origin of this dreadful disease. This generates debate and controversies. This is not surprising because when catastrophe befalls man, the immediate tendency is to blame others. Initially, AIDS was thought to originate from Haiti and later from Africa (Health Care, 1986). Not entirely surprising and quite in their character, the West claims that AIDS originated from Africa because of the discovery that the AIDS virus is similar to the virus found in Africa green monkeys. It is significant to note that this argument has been dismissed as a mere racist speculation and propaganda by the West designed to degrade Africa (Alhassan, 2001).

It is instructive to note that while the West is blaming Africa for the disease, Russia is convinced that AIDS originated from America, with the claim that the AIDS virus was the product of American chemical warfare research that was mistakenly manufactured in a chemical weapon laboratory Alcorn, (2000). AIDS has also been linked to the moral and sexual decadence prevalent in the West such as homosexuality (Altman, 1986).

This reasoning seems sound given the fact that AIDS virus was first identified among the homosexuals in the United States of America in 1981. The divergent claims and counter claims of its origin contributed a great deal to the awe with which people regard or disregard the presence of AIDS, particularly in Africa. What is of crucial importance now is what humanity can do to stop the pandemic from consuming the world.

Since the beginning of the pandemic, the United Nations Joint Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS) estimates that at least 40 million adults and children have been infected, more than three-quarters concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa, among whom 8.6 million are children and young people. With 14,000 new HIV infections occurring every day, AIDS has not stopped spreading all around the world and it has become a main cause of mortality in Africa (UNAIDS. 2000).

The greatest killer epidemic in modern history - and the worst ever by the time it comes under control - is due to a virus that is not particularly contagious. Other infectious diseases - such as tuberculosis - are highly contagious: just being in the proximity of an infected person may be sufficient to fall ill. The spread of HIV on the other hand, is relatively easy to prevent - and informed and motivated individuals can protect themselves.

If we know how HIV is transmitted, how come that the world is still experiencing 14,000 new infections per day? …