At Crossroads of EFL Learning and Culture: How to Enhance Cross-Cultural Awareness in EFL College Students/AU CARREFOUR D'ENSEIGNEMENT DE EFLET CULTURE: COMMENT AMÉLIORER LA CONSCIENCE MULTICULTURELLE DANS DES ÉTUDIANTS UNIVERSITAIRES EFL

Article excerpt

Abstract:

It may be a truism that culture and language are intricately interwoven and that language is the basis of culture, but this tradition has been mostly absent in the concern for second culture acquisition. Theoretically, there is a solid recognition in pertinent literature that teaching English cannot be isolated from teaching its culture. This article, basically a discussion paper, introduced cultural awareness as a significant step towards activating a sound theory of English teaching and learning pedagogy. Towards this purpose, the article has outlined the concepts of culture in English language teaching (ELT), acculturation, cultural competence and cultural awareness as basic steps for inducing effective communication. The differences between Arabic and English cultures, and the need for cultural awareness were also discussed. The article has also discussed how to foster students' cross-cultural awareness in EFL teaching, and the implications of this in EFL teacher education programmes.

Key words: Cross-cultural awareness; Language; Culture; EFL; ELT; Acculturation; EFL teacher education

Resumé: Cela peut être un truisme que la culture et la langue sont complexent entrelacés et cette langue est la base de culture, mais cette tradition a été surtout absente dans la préoccupation pour la deuxième acquisition de culture. Théoriquement, il y a une reconnaissance solide dans la littérature pertinente apprenant l'anglais ne peut pas être isolé d'apprendre sa culture. Cet article, essentiellement un journal de discussion, la conscience culturelle présentée comme une étape significative vers l'activation d'une théorie du son d'enseignement d'anglais et l'étude de pédagogie. Vers ce but, l'article a souligne les concepts de culture dans l'enseignement de l'anglais (ELT), l'acculturation, la compétence culturelle et la conscience culturelle comme des étapes de base pour inciter la communication efficace. Les différences entre des cultures arabes et anglaises et le besoin de la conscience culturelle ont été aussi discutées. L'article a aussi discuté comment favoriser la conscience multiculturelle des étudiants dans l'enseignement d'EFL et les implications dans l'enseignement des professeur EFL.

Mots-clés: Conscience multiculturelle; Langue; Culture; EFL; ELT; Acculturation; EFL enseignement(éducation) de professeur

INTRODUCTION

Language is an aspect of culture, whereas the latter denotes the totality of the humanly created world, including, but not restricted to language, arts and sciences, spirituality, social activity, interaction and communication (Kroeber and Kluckhohn, 1952). According to a classical definition by Tylor, the term is defined as follows:

"Culture, or civilization, taken in its broad, ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." (Tylor, 1974, p. 1)

Culture has also been defined as the

"integrated pattern of human behaviour that includes thoughts, communications, languages, practices, beliefs, values, customs, courtesies, rituals, manners of interacting and roles, relationships and expected behaviours of a racial, ethnic, religious or social group; and the ability to transmit the above to succeeding generations" (Goode, et al, 2000).

In the field of TESOL and EFL, some authors, Atkinson (1999) for instance, distinguished among three different notions of culture currently operating in the TESOL field: the first one accepts what he calls "received" (i.e. traditional) view of culture as an identifiable entity associated with national boundaries; the second one moves away from such a view in a theoretical sense, but in analyses of practices still sees culture "in some sense as repositories of shared possibly normative values" (what Atkinson terms 'received-but-critical view'); and the third, a 'critical view' that problematizes the usefulness of the concept of culture (p. …