The Effect of Gender on Organizational Commitment of Teachers: A Meta Analytic Analysis

Article excerpt

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of gender on the organizational commitment of teachers. In this respect, the levels of organizational commitment were also investigated with organizational commitment. Fifteen master and doctorate theses done between 2005-2009 were analyzed using meta analysis. At the end of the research study, the mean effect size was calculated as -0,07. It means that the effect of gender on the organizational commitment is on the favor of males. Particularly, it was found that the effect of gender is in the favor of males at the levels of identification and internalization. Male teachers can adopt the norms and values of the organization easier than females. On the other hand, female teachers have a tendency of organizational commitment so as to carry on their acquisition.

Key Words

Organizational Commitment, Meta Analysis, Educational Administration.

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A human being who is a social creature spends his most of lifetime in organizations. An organization emerges in need of cooperation. People need cooperation in order to fulfill their purposes. While an organization is a tool to accomplish one's purpose, an individual can be thought as a tool to succeed in organizational purposes.

Organizational commitment is the promise and pledge of any responsibility in the future (Zangaro, 2001, p. 14). Organizational commitment is a responsibility felt by an employee in order to identify with the norms and purposes of the organization (Buchanan, 1974, p. 533). Organizational commitment can't be thought as a simple loyalty. Organizational commitment has been defined as involving an employee's loyalty to the organization, willingness to exert effort on behalf of the organization, degree of goal and value congruency with the organization, and desire to maintain membership (Cohen, 2007, p. 336).

In the light of all these definitions, organizational commitment is a definite desire to maintain organizational membership, identification with the purposes, successes of organization, the loyalty of an employee,and a willingness to exert considerable effort on the behalf of the organization.

There are various classification for organizational commitment. In Turkey, the classification performed by O'Reilly and Chatman (1986, p. 492) with Allen and Meyer (1990, p. 2-5) was mostly used. O'Reilly and Chatman (1986, p. 492) implies three levels for organizational commitment:

The Level of Accordance

The level of accordance defines a shallow organizational loyalty (Balay, 2000, p. 68). The employees feel the necessity of accordance in order to record gains. Accordance is the first step of commitment. It is possible to say that an individual feels the necessity of accordance because of an award or a penalty. An individual tries to accord with the others for pay rise or promotion (Bursalioglu, 2005, p. 143).

The Level of Identification

It is the second level of commitment. Identification defines the influence between the individual and the group. An individual feels himself as a part of the group when he gets the opportunity to express himself freely. When a person identifies with the organization, his job satisfaction gets higher while his tolerance with the ambiguity is low. If his level of identification is high, he accepts the success of the organization as his own (Basaran, 2000, p. 33).

The Level of Internalization

This is the last level of commitment. It defines the accordance between the organizational and personal norms. An employee makes the organizational norms and values willingly not by forcing (Bursalioglu, 2005, p. 144).

Allen and Meyer (1990) identify three types of commitment; affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment.

Affective Commitment

Affective commitment is defined as the emotional attachment, identification and involvement that an employee has with organization and goals (Wiener, 1982, p. …