Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Turkic Republics and Turkey: Economic and Business Dimensions/ORGANISATION DE COOPÉRATION DE SHANGHAI, RÉPUBLIQUES TURQUES ET TURQUIE: DIMENSIONS ÉCONOMIQUES ET COMMERCIALES

Article excerpt

Abstract:

An ever-increasing globalization in last century is enforcing many countries to come together and create organizations to take advantage of a greater power in the global stage both in political and economic issues. Regional organizations are one form of such organizations. In addition to many of such groups, Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is an intergovernmental mutual-security organization which was founded in 2001 by the leaders of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. In a short period of time since then SCO has proved itself to be a powerful organization promising to be an authority in Central Asian region. The research at hand is formed to investigate the development of this organization along with its effect on Turkey as well as the member countries. This effect is also analyzed in two dimensions. The place of SCO in region is analyzed not only in terms of economic side but also the business side. The fact that business and economics are difficult to isolate from each other, makes it a necessity to use this approach, thus, making this study a valuable source.

Key words: Shanghai Cooperation Organization; Turkic Republics; Central Asia; Transitional Economies

Reéumé: Une mondialisation en constante croissance dans le siècle dernier oblige de nombreux pays de se réunir et de créer des organisations afin de profiter d'un plus grand pouvoir dans les événements politiques et économiques au niveau international. Les organisations régionales sont une forme de ces organisations. A part de ces groupes, !Organisation de coopération de Shanghai (OCS) est une organisation intergouvernementale de sécurité mutuelle, fondée en 2001 par les dirigeants de la Chine, la Russie, le Kazakhstan, le Kirghizistan, le Tadjikistan et l'Ouzbékistan. Dans un court laps de temps depuis lors, OCS s'est avérée être une organisation puissante promettant d'être une autorité en Asie centrale.

La présente recherche est menée pour enquêter sur le développement de cette organisation ainsi que son effet sur la Turquie et les pays membres. Cet effet est également analysé en deux dimensions. Le statut de IOCS dans la région est analysé non seulement du point de vue économique mais aussi commercial. Le fait que le commerce et l'économie sont difficiles à isoler l'un de l'autre exige une nécessité d'utiliser cette approche, ce qui rend cette étude une source précieuse.

Mots clés: Organisation de coopération de Shanghai; Républiques turques; Asie central; Économies transitionnelles

1. INTRODUCTION

The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is an intergovernmental mutual-security organization which was founded in 2001 by the leaders of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Except for Uzbekistan, the other countries had been members of the Shanghai Five, founded in 1996; after the inclusion of Uzbekistan in 2001, the members renamed the organization. Creation of the Shanghai Five became possible after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The reason which has brought together five countries was solution of border disputes between countries of former Soviet Union and the China. Before disintegration of the Soviet Union, the USSR and China were discussing the conditions of borders and frontier territories.

In April 1996 four former Soviet republics-Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan together with China have created the mechanism of regional cooperation-the "Shanghai Five" nowadays the "Shanghai Cooperation Organization". The overall objectives of this organization, first of all, were problems o strengthening of trust in military area, frontier areas. The beginning of interaction in frameworks of the " Shanghai Five" has been put by the agreement on strengthening of trust in military sphere of 1996 and the agreement on mutual reduction of armed forces in frontier regions of 1997. April 1996 was marked as a birth of a new organization created on the basis of trust and mutual understanding between five states. …