Due to the frequent change in expectations from education/learning, youth, the educational system's most dynamic participants, are experiencing low-level motivation in education and learning, because of growth and psychological characteristics or sociological, economic, and other reasons. This negative process is pushing program-developers, educational administrators and particularly teachers to investigate its reasons. To get such data, "education of youth" associations were investigated among youths (N=283) of different countries (Turkey, America, Russia, Ukraine) and 464 valid associations in 6 categories were obtained. The data analysis determined that Turkish students produced mostly individual (71.84%) and critical/negative (34.16%) associations. Most positive associations had qualities of "expectations, hope, and advantage." Taking the associations into consideration, regulating educational environments can be used as a strong data in increasing motivation and developing educational policies.
Youth, University, Association, Education, Motivation.
Symbols and the concepts represented by symbols play a significant role in communication among individuals. The creativity of the parties during this process, that is to say, their ability to establish association over the symbols provides that the communication is sustained more fluently and healthily. Each of the created associations adds on a new letter, a new concept and a new way of approach to the common language. By preferring the short cuts rather than the long discussions these kinds of intellectual symbols (associations; the subconscious perception, the qualities of the special concepts and their extent of comprehensiveness play an important role. The continuity of the communication and its advancement in the positive direction depends on what the conveyed message is, to what extent it speaks to the interests and the needs of the related parties, the attitudes of the parties towards the message and to their approaches (Kagitçibasi, 1988). During this process, the submitted messages having the same perception qualities (associations) according to the parties play the priority effect in the healthy progress of the process and in the realization of the goals. In learning, if the information derived from a source is described to have been perceived by the receiver the same as it is submitted, in the same magnitude and meaning; its perception, its comprehension is processed as submitted and thus resulting with a change in the behavior; in this case the components of this process gain significance in learning. In other words, the direction, quality and the sustainability of the learned behavior (reaction) is determined by the source and the similarities of the intellectual associations (conceptual codes= associations), their uniformity or their qualities. Therefore the students, whose approaches, opinions and the intellectual readiness are known by the teachers, can benefit more from the learning process. Yet the teacher determines the communication method in this way (the teaching method).
The relation between the stimulus-reaction, which is described as "reflexive" by I. Pavlov has led the way to the response by Skinner and Thorndike by means of "conscious gains and the meaning relations established between the previous informational gains" about "why and how the individual behaves" (Ulusoy, 2006). The plentitude of the relations, that is to say, the number of the relations established between the learning approaches in different fields, helps the speed and the positive development of learning (Köknel, Özugurlu, & Bahadir, 1993).
According to the approaches, which we know as the Gestalt Theory, the learning behavior is a result of a kind of intellectual organization. According to this opinion, the brain tends to complete and provide a meaning to the half finished experiences and perceptions (Ulusoy, 2006). That is, the similarity in learning, the closeness, continuity, the relation between the type and ground relations; and completion; steps forward before us as a process that is operated during learning. The learned information gives a direction to the behavior as it is perceived, as it should have been by means of such operations that are carried out around these principles (Cüceloglu, 1991). As much as the learning material is meaningful, learning is also much easier. This situation, which we may describe as associational meaningfulness, is explained by what will be remembered in the mind by the learned information (Ari, 2005; Morgan, 1991). Consequently, the efficiency of the learning process is directly proportional to the demanded direction of the association and the plentitude of its number. It is important how the learned information is operated by mind, and how the result is obtained by establishing the relations with each other. "The learning is actually a process that is realized in the mind. Consequently; the learning can not be explained before determining the change that occurs in mind and before determining the factors that start this change" (Yapici & Yapici, 2005, p. 181).
To add this expression which is related with learning and connotation, it is beneficial to look different expressions how Turkish Language Association [TDK] (2010) describes the connotations in different arts (The Grand Turkish Dictionary):
"(i) it is something which reminds the same because of the place, the time, the associations or the contrast because of cause and result. 2. It is a spiritual activity and the relations which are designed because of functional relations. The Education Word Dictionary 1974.
(ii) It is something without spiritual action's wishes, and also sometimes their catching each other because of their wishes' resistance. // From Aristotle till now it is known as four connations law: it is similarities, oppositions, being together in the same place, and following each other at the same time. The Philosophy Words Dictionary 1975.
(iii) A meaning of the word that shapes and makes the relations with other words closeness in sound: Tree (agaç), arid ( kiraç), beetle (tokaç), from (gelen) who (gören), knowing (bilen), equanimity (agirbaslilik), seriousness (ciddiyet), gravity (ciddilik), official (resmilik) , sedate (oturakli) etc. The Grammar Words Dictionary 2003.
(iv) It is the event which eventuates between behaviors, thoughts and concept, caused with time and place, and one of them catch the other one to the sense. The Psychology Words Dictionary 1974."
Cevizci (2002) association by being described to "Expresses the Phenomena that relates the words, images and the feelings in a manner that will recall each other" draws attention to four fundamental points: Interconnectedness, Reducibility, Perceptional being, Mechanical being. Such a significant gain in the efficiency of learning; the association, which appears as the basic reason behind the behavior, many times caused discussions which do not lead to any conclusions. The Qualitative and the quantitative structure of the mental operations conducted during thinking sets forth the intelligence of the individual. Yet the intelligence is defined to be "the ability to comprehend the newly faced, unfamiliar situations and problems by benefiting from the previous experiences ad learned things, and the ability to conduct the necessary solutions and the operations" (Köknel et al., 1993, p. 118).
In the researches that are conducted related to the nature of learning the "meaningfulness" of the material, which will be learned, has always played an important role. However another subject of curiosity has been what is expressed by being "meaningful". Morgan (1991), while interpreting the other researches performed on this subject makes a word on three fundamental meaningfulness; associative, conceptual and the meanings related to the step sequences. Here, the subject that is mentioned as "associative meaning" by Morgan is, what a concepts makes the person recall while learning. While the class activities determine the organization style of the information in the mind, it is again an important tip in learning and remembering it (Yilmaz, 2005). Therefore, each experience gained by the individual during the learning process is placed within the "associative meaning" map. Emiroglu (2002), in his research conducted in order to find out his opinions about the teaching methods of the branch teachers in Revolution History and Kemalism, concluded that the experiences gained by excursions, observations and applications made the students gain an associative benefit. The approach, which is used by advertorial sector frequently, is like arousing the hidden power which helps the customer to buy the product. So, if we look at the customer's attitudes from the learning perspective, it expresses the change which affected from the experience and the sense in the marks (Odabasi & Baris, 2002).
From a different point of view learning defines the activities of the student on his/her own. This is a kind of organizing and directing the learned things within the individual (Hesapçioglu, 1998). While the teacher organizes and rebuilds the intellectual world and the life experiences of the student, s/he should act according to the nature of learning and how it is realized. When the associations are organized as being suitable to the student, from physical to non-physical, from close to the far, from known to the unknown, work principles and tendency to life; the learning itself is realized in a positive direction. In order to achieve success in teaching, one should know student and the associative meanings in his/her mind sufficiently which makes guiding the student possible (Kuran, 2002).
Another important data is that, each of the students whose the cognitive style has diversified along with the gains during the life term obtains different gains at the end of the course. The teacher who has been teaching according to his/her own style could say for an unsuccessful student that "s/he could just not learn". However there is an emphasis on that today the courses should be taught according to the own style of each student to the possible extent (Erden & Altun, 2008). Being aware of the associations to be developed by the student is beneficial to determine strategies for learning and supporting recipes including examples for the course, in the future (Tan, 1992). "Learning to manage their own intellectual processes with the help of the words and the signs, is an integral part to the concept formation process" (Vygotsky, 1985, p. 90). The student reacts with the associations that rebuilt on the conceptions that s/he has. The concepts which seem valuable to the students require less serious learning efforts comparing to those concepts that look less valuable to the students (Alkan & Kurt, 2007; Morgan, 1991).
According to the Social Institution of the United Nations, the youth is defined those individuals between 15-24 that are schooled and does not need to work to make a living, and living with his/her family (Aytaç, 2008). The term of youth is a kind of passage term in which the young person prepares him/herself to meet the expectations of the social surrounding society, that is to say, prepared for the social maturity (Özyurt & Dogan, 2002). The young population has always been the representative of change, the defender of the innovations. On one hand, while continuing the culture and the social order in which they are born; on the other hand, they always had the desire to positively benefit from the changing conditions and the technology; and to realize their own desires if they catch the opportunity. The pressure in the family and in the social surrounding leads the youth to depressions which are hard to satisfy, to restlessness, to disobediences (Tüzün, 2005).
The youth, with the courage provided by his/her biological structure and inexperienced being, always chases after change, always moves to understand the surrounding to which s/he is born to make it fitting to her/himself. Hence we always see them in action; asking never ending questions, revealing courage instead of being shy, with prevailing will to adventure, and acting with their feelings instead of being reasonable (Özönder, 1989). Adults' reserved beings in endeavors and taking risk is related with their unsuccessfulness while young's willingness in the situation is closely related with unexperienced unsuccessfulness. Naturally, the young people are more non-conformist in taking risks (Güney & Çok, 2006). The young people who are extremely proud of what they do, sticking on their direction until they reach the goal and never get bored because of their psychological characteristics, are also living the most dynamic, most romantic, most fearless, and the most efficient term of their lives (Tuncay, 2000). These young people carry the characteristics that are exactly demanded for education and learning. According to the research "the status of the youth" that is conducted on this field, while 49,1% of the youth say that a good job is what they want the most, it is followed by "reputability" by 18,1% and "love" with 16,9% (Aytaç, 2008).
The researches that are performed in social sciences on the personal characteristics and the frames of mind, have provided significant contributions for understanding the nature of human. The students who had conflicts for a long time with authoritative, surely teachers, were not held active during the learning process (Tezcan, 1997; Okçabol, 2007). This detection by Tezcan is also confirmed by Erdem with his research "What do the high school youth think?" The 2nd and the 3rd grade high school students whose opinions were taken in interviews individually emphasize that they are held for nothing by the school management, their opinions are not viewed as important; they are not even given an opportunity to express their opinions. Related to what kind of result may be created by such application in the formal education the International Student Success Evaluation Program [PISA] researches were analyzed by Berberoglu and Kalender (2005). In the conducted evaluations the detections that; "The Turkish Students are behind their peers in Europe in basic skills and understanding what they read"; are emphasized (p. 24). In the PISA 2006 preliminary report which was done by the Ministry of National Education (Milli Egitim Bakanligi [MEB], 2006), the same results were obtained, and as it was in 2003 it is underlined that it is among the bottom lines between the OECD countries. Related to what is contributed to the life of the student by means of the school, which is in fact the place of learning and socializing, was evaluated by the research done by the Istanbul Bilgi University (Yentürk et al., 2008). In this research, by evaluating the student opinions, it is emphasized that schools are no longer such places where students can express themselves and live the change and diversification. It is also emphasized that there is a serious communication and coherence problem between the students and the teachers, along with the advancements in technology there are some problems emerging related to transfer of information to the students.
The complete detection of what the students gain during the education and learning, as in PISA example, makes the international comparisons compulsory. The significance of the qualitative researches, to determine the own opinions of the youth about how their education should be, is increasing. In the performed researches, mostly the learning skills and the behaviors of the students were examined. In order to make such researches more meaningful, it is needed to research what kind of associations play a role in learning and behaviors. This kind of researches will provide significant assistance to the teachers on determining the class activities and the way to organize them. Yet, being planned and being able to predict beforehand is a guarantee to achieve the goals not only of science, but also education and learning (Isman & Eskicumali, 2003).
This study is carried out to determine what kind of associations the 3rd grade university students have about the "education of the youth" regardless of their departments at the university. Within the frame of the general purpose that is expressed; answers to these questions are sought in the study: (i) What kind of associations do the university students have about the "education of the youth? (ii) Is there any difference of method between the developed associations of the Turkish and the foreign students about the "education of the youth"? (iii) What are the positive and the negative qualities of the associations developed by the university students about the "education of the youth"? (iv) Do the associations developed by the university students about the "education of the youth" have the characteristics to be agglomerated or distributed in any categories?
In this research, while qualitative method is used in order to analyze what "youth education" concept is associated with university students, "substance analysis" technique, which is used for analyzing the data (Yildirim & Simsek, 2005), is employed to explain the meaning and classification of the connotations. It also makes it possible to analyze the interpretation of the reasons of the change according to the connotation categories and the countries of the students that improve these connotations.
In this research, assistance is requested from the university lecturers at different cities in the country and abroad. In selecting the cities, universities and departments, the presence of the lecturers who will be assisting the study has played an important role. The assistance is requested from the university lecturers in Russia, Ukraine, Germany and USA in the application of the data collection tool.
The data collection tool along with received positive responses was applied to university students in Turkey (Istanbul, Erzurum), USA (Texas /Lubbock), Russia (Kazan) and Ukraine (Kiev). In 2009-2010 academic year students from different departments studying at the 3rd grade have attended the study. The distribution of the participant students based on their countries is as follows: Turkey (Marmara University, Faculty of Technique education (male: 50, female: 53), Erzurum Ataturk University Veterinary Faculty students (male:34, female:13); USA (Texas/Lubbock Tech University students (male:42, female: 19), Ukraine (Taras Sevçenko University students (male:8, female:27) and Russia (37).
Data Collection Process
In 2009-2010 spring term, in order to reveal the association about the "education of the youth" that the 3rd grade students from different departments have, each was asked to write more than one answer to the question "what does the youth's education make them recall? (associative concept). In order to prove that the participants write the first connotations that come to their minds, the time was limited to 10 minutes including the explanations and reading of the instructions. This time limitation was for providing that the students do not answer intentionally and without thinking over the subject.
With this aim, first literature review is made on the definition of the concept that is required to study on and from what it can be affected. The 3rd grade university students are preferred as working group because of not only their efficient knowledge about education, but also the fact that their connotation field could be large enough. Some essential contacts were made in order to determine the possible universities to reach the students who will take part in this group. In order to compare the qualitative features of the connotations belonging to Turkish students with other close and far countries' students, the universities which can enable the application from Russia, Ukraine and USA are preferred. The people to run the study from these universities are confirmed and informed about the study. In order to prove unity in the research, a research instruction (Dear students to be used in scientific research, you are asked what kind of connotations does the question "what does youth education associate with?" bring to your minds. Please read the question once again and write more than one initial connotations coming to your minds in 5 minutes to the blank.) is formed. In addition, explaining information for those to run the research are prepared in Turkish, Russian and English and sent to application areas. Each research conductor is asked to explain the aim of the research and the instruction prepared about what is required from the participants and deliver the blank papers on which the instruction is written in a short time. To prove the validity of the data application time is taken short. The research conductors were asked to be careful about the use of time for explanation and preparation for 5 minutes and 5 minutes for only writing the connotations. Some of the information, which was collected from the students from Turkey-Erzurum, USA, Russia and Ukraine in writing, was received by post and some of them were received by e-mail after having the answers scanned. English and Russian connotations are translated into Turkish in order to analyze the similarities and differences on concepts in one language. The statements which do not bare connotation qualification or unconnected with the subject, are kept away from the research. Those statements which are connotation in sense of quality, but long sentences in the sense of structure such as "not receiving what one expect from life" (hopelessness) or "loafing about on the streets" (aimlessness) are changed into concepts or concept groups stating connotation by taking the ideas that are willed to be emphasized into consideration.
Data Analysis Process
In the study, totally 283 students were asked to develop associations about the "education of the youth". Some of the associations developed by the student were redefined by filling the content with the associative qualities from the point of the structure. The associations which are cleared off the explanatory or diversifying works or groups of words, were classified in groups of categories as per their positive/negative contents and qualitative characters. For example, the associations such as future, knowledge, development, culture, morality are qualified as positive and false, memorize, disaster, drug, street are qualified as negative associations. Besides, concepts such as future, budget, failure, deficiency, value, condition, futurity are categorized as "hopeful" considering the ideas despite their differences in word structure or meanings. These associations are collected as six sub-groups: "promising, redemptive, acquisitive education", "education which increases the quality of a new social life", "guided, intentional, compulsive education", "education to improve individual life", "information providing/educatory-informatory education", "empty, irregular and forced education". For the frequency and the percentage calculations of the associations, the associations were carried on to the computer media. Lastly, the positive/negative associations, their sole being of repetitions, the most frequent repetitions, categorically what kinds of associations are developed in what frequencies were calculated quantitatively. In addition, assumptions on determining the ways to benefit from these values in education programming and development (Erden, 1993), in the organization of the educational and learning media, and in regulating the teachers and the student behaviors in the class, were made.
The below given results are obtained by viewing the qualitative particulars in the computerized media regarding the associations developed by the university students about the "Education of the Youth". In the conducted evaluations; the associations belonging to the Turkish students were compared with the associations of the Russian and the Ukrainian students; and to the associations created by the USA students. In the comparisons attention is paid to in which categories the associations are frequently agglomerated and especially about which qualities they are criticized.
Associations and General Distribution as Per Countries
First of all, it is beneficial to see the general information related to how many associations are developed by the Turkish, USA, Russian, and Ukraine youth in order to state an opinion on the meaningfulness of the data that is obtained in the study. According to the data of the research, it is observed that the Turkish youth have developed more associations comparing to the youth of the other countries. It is possible to explain this plentitude with the number of the participants of the study. When they are examined from the point of the originality (uniqueness) and repeatability of the associations, the Turkish students have developed individual associations by 71,84% comparing to other countries. Despite this, the plentitude of the individual associations point out that the youth have different opinions on this subject and the education of the youth differs as being bound to more than one variable.
When it is viewed from the point of uniqueness and repeatability the equal ratio of associations belonging to USA; Russian and Ukraine Youth, have an importance as a significant data. From the point of negative and positive qualities of the associations, the Turkish Youth, comparing to the youth of the other countries, have developed the greatest number of negative associations by 34,16%. This situation is also supported by Human Development Report about Youth in Turkey of UNDP, and they point out that the frequent changes in education programs and policies concern the youth about their own education (Birlesmis Milletler Kalkinma Programi [UNDP], 2008). The Russian and the Ukrainian youth having a very low level of negative associations related to the education of the youth helps us suggest that there are not too much problems encountered in this subject and there is a significant coherence between the education and the goals of the youth.
Most Frequently Repeated Associations: The distribution of the most repeated associations as per the countries and their frequency percentages are given. When a general evaluation is done, it is viewed that the youth agree on the positive associations with the greatest ratio, and again a great portion of these are associations with the qualities of education/learning and plus/negative gains. From this point of view, why the education exists qualitatively and what it can provide for the youth was thought on theoretically and the associations were developed in this context. Especially, the associations such as "future", university", "children", "primary education", "investment", "information", "development", "career", which took the first places and expressed by the youth of almost every country explain this thoroughly.
Positive and Negative Associations
The Turkish youth by 34,16%, USA by 22,96, Ukraine by 7,9 and Russia by 5,89 have developed negative associations. A great portion of the associations, which are developed along with the opinion that education is an important activity for the youth and the education will provide a great gain for the youth have positive qualities.
The researches show that the associations expressed at the first order by the youth of all countries are the ones that are most frequent and have the positive qualities (Turkey: "future" 6,91%, USA: "Children "8,48%, Russia: "university" 10,23%, Ukraine: "future" 12,85 %). A great portion of the associations that have the positive qualities are the most intense around the associations such as culture, morality, investment, information accumulation, job opportunities, quality, career, university. The data reveal that the expected role of the education for youth which constitutes an important portion of the society, is perceived well by themselves, and it is viewed valuable at an important level. The fact that the answers given to the question of "what they most want" are around more "a good job" and "prestige" in the research of Youth Condition by Aytaç (2008), bares similarity with the connotations that are obtained in our research.
In Which Categories Which Associations Are Developed As Per Their Qualities?
The associations obtained by means of the research were collected in three groups as per their qualities: Promising, redemptive, acquisitive education; education that increases the quality of a new social life, guided, intentional and compulsive education, education that increases the quality of the individual right; information provider/ educating-learning education; empty, irregular and forced education. The classification of the associations is done by both from the point of their qualities and from the point of their purpose of mentioning them. For example the associations such as profession, investment, development, money, advancement, hope, time, English, deficit, diploma have taken place among the same category as they provide important gains to the youth in their future lives or as they should provide this but of which the lack is felt due to the association with the deficient education.
In the study, it is understood that the associations of the Turkish, Russian, and Ukrainian youth with the education is more intense in the promising, redemptive and acquisitive education (Turkey: %47,45, Russia: %49,4, Ukraine: %50,56). When it is considered that all three countries are still developing economically, socially and in other fields, it is not surprising that the associations developed by the youth about why the youth should be educated takes its place in this category. Yet, 47,73% of the associations developed by the USA youth, which is a developed country (the highest association ratio), takes its place among the information provider, educator-learning category. Another detail that draws attention, is that the associations of the Russian and the Ukrainian that take the second place in the order is the information provider, educator-learning category (Russia: %21,96, Ukraine: %19,21). Comparing to this, the associations developed by the Turkish youth are secondly intense in the category "that increases the quality of a new social life". Yet, the emphasis made on the social importance of the education at each opportunity and at all medias, may have played an important role in the development of this association.
Promising; Redemptive; Acquisitive Education: In this study, when we examine the associations developed by the youth related to their own education, it draws attention that this feature is preserved completely.
It is meaningful that the associations such as apple, university, information, career, development, culture, development, which would be at the first places in the study take place with high frequencies. Each of these associations would possibly be the first answers to the question "Why should we educate the youth?" When the differences between the countries are examined, it is obvious that the highest number of associations (99 pieces) are developed by the Turkish youth. The least number (22) is developed by the USA youth. It is viewed that the associations developed by the Turkish, Russian and Ukrainian youth are generally developed by more than one individual. On the other hand, in this category there are the associations developed by single person among the USA youth. This separation reveals that the Turkish, Russian and the Ukrainian youth view the education of the youth as a hope and they agree with their peers in this subject. It will be appropriate to explain this situation with the political, social and the economical positions of these countries which frequently undergo economic and political fluctuations.
The plentitude of the associations by far developed by the Turkish youth makes the one curious about the content of such associations. From the associations, the associations such as the money, progress, hope, light, civilized, peace, job, drought, unnecessary, employment, national income, horizon, tomorrow are different in their origin but still they have the same qualities in return to a feeling. These associations reveal that the education is viewed as a gate of hope that provides peace, light, and employment. This evaluation presents a similarity with the youth's answers such as "a good job" to the question of what they wanted. The attention drawn to the increase in the national income by the courtesy of this should not be disregarded. The negative associations "drought" and "unnecessary" are also viewed to be important from the point of expressing a thirst and a need that should be met.
The Education that Increases the Quality of a New Social Life: In the study, when both the numbers and their frequencies per the countries are examined, it is observed that the Turkish youth developed associations in a greater ratio. As it should be remembered, in the category "The education that increases the quality of a new social life" the associations were developed by 12,99% by Turkish youth, 2,53% by USA youth, 8,62% by Russian youth, by 7,81% by Ukrainian youth.
The Turkish youth, who have developed a great ratio of associations in this category (12,99%) in comparison to other countries that are in the scope of the research, think that a new society will be established by their own education and thus the living quality of the society will be increased.
The associations developed in this field, such as civilization, order, secular, universal, Kemalism, independence, civilization, civilization culture, republic, standing upright, sovereignty, nationalist, social development significantly express that the inevitable path to social development passes through the "education of the youth". Since some political concepts take place among the associations, the opinions about these are not only opinions or a way of thinking, but also they are at the phase of action. The fact that the youth of the other countries have developed less number of associations in this subject (USA youth 2,53%, Russian youth 8,62%, Ukrainian youth 7,81%), and especially the fact that the youth of USA developed associations significantly in low frequency, points out that there is no thought given to a possible link between the education of the youth and the life quality of the society. This situation helps us to consider that there may be a criticism against the education in the country instead of an irrelevance. Yet while the youth of the USA develops negative associations by 22,96%, the Ukrainian youth developed 7,9% and the Russian youth developed 5,89% negative associations. The qualities of these negative associations (simple, detention, insufficient, drugs, standard tests, brain wash, propaganda, yelling out, sometimes stupid, passing empty) gives us an idea about the existence or nonexistence of a serious criticism. If there is, it points out that expressing the opinion that education plays a role in the increase of the quality of the social life, is in fact not an exaggerated opinion for a USA citizen.
Guided, Intentional and Compulsive Education: As per the data obtained in the study, the Turkish and the USA youth have developed associations pointing out the education that keeps them under pressure and force them. Turkish by 11,44%, USA 10,14 %). As the Russian and the Ukrainian youth did not develop many associations related to this subject strengthens the consideration that this is sourced by the difference in the style which the educational system is organized.
The associations developed by the Turkish youth regarding this subject are significantly remarkable: difficult, concern, memorizing, disaster, hard, problem, examination, boring, control, self opinionated, advice, snow fall, family pressure, white death, hunger, exhausted, terror, straight logic, concern, inflexible, sorrow, darkness, restriction, lonely, cliché, violence, danger, tsunami, scarp, sleepless, savageness, coefficient, rule, military. From these associations difficult, memorizing, hard, examination and coefficient are those qualities directly related with education and learning and if there are any changes and improvements on them they are the ones which may result with the development of the positive associations. However each of the associations apart form these are the qualities which may be handled within the rights and the freedom of human beings. Especially, the associations such as family pressure, exhausted, violence, tsunami, savageness, danger reveal that some of the subconscious associations of the youth related to the education have significantly negative qualities. Those who have these associations are totally against this situation of the education and learning, and it reveals the feelings that if it continues as the same, they may face the danger of survival individually. The obtained data show parallelism with the results that prove that the youth feel oppressed in the education process and that their ideas are not given importance, which is put forward in the researches of Erdem (1989), Tezcan (1997) and Okçabol (2007).
Again, as strengthening the evaluations in the same direction, the associations of the youth of the USA is meaningful even they are not much (10,14%): detention, compulsive, standard tests, brain wash, propaganda, working, hour, policy, baby, changing the diapers, dependence, guided, noise, restless students, chaos, rules, explosions, boring, sociopaths, long, difficult, dependence, knives. These evaluations will be much meaningful when it is evaluated how many of the associations have negative and positive associations (Turkish youth 34,16%, the USA youth 22,96%).
Education that Increases the Quality of the Individual Life: In addition to offering new learning possibilities provided to the individual, education also shapes a healthy individual life from the point of gaining a better future. It helps individual to develop the healthy means of thinking, to shape and to direct the opinions and the behaviors. As per the data obtained in the researches, very few associations developed by the university youth about the "education of the youth" takes its place among the category "The education that increases the quality of the individual life" (Turkey: 10,96%, USA 3,62%, Russia 14,88%; Ukraine 13,49%).
In the study, when the distribution of the associations is viewed as per the countries, it will be observed that compared to others, numbers of the associations developed by the Turkish youth (10,96%) are much more. On the other hand, the USA youth as revealing their weak belief for the increase in the individual life by means of education, have developed few number of associations (3,62%). In this category while the Russian and the Ukrainian youth developed more associations comparing to the youth of USA, they still developed less associations comparing to Turkish youth. We may interpret this situation as, the expectation of the society from the educational institutions depends on the stabile or the dynamic being of the social and the other institutional structures. If we pay attention, even the criticizing associations of the Turkish youth reveal the magnitude of the expectations form the educational institutions. If it is evaluated from the point of both the positive and the negative expectations and additionally within the frame of the category including the education that increases the social and the individual life, it is observable that the Turkish youth have great hope and significant expectations from the "education of the youth": Morality, awareness, respect, self-esteem, understanding, determination, unawareness, ignorant, sharing, entertainment, sacrifice, smiling faces, sexuality, pretension, precision, cute, conscious, regret, intolerant, search, spiritual health, honesty, decisiveness, focusing, excitement, attitude, awareness, kindness, identity, personal development, maturity, self, vision, who does not develop him/herself, love, hunger, intellectual, intellectualism, brain, influence. The development of the comments related to these associations in such manner; and the lessening of them Russia and Ukraine comparing to Turkey and the more lessening of them among the students in USA; causes that the indicators showing that the expectations from education are weakened. It is understood that, in the USA where there is a more stabilized structure from the economic and the social points when compared to Turkey, the opinion among the youth that they should pass through an education and learning process compulsorily in order to increase the quality of their individual lives, is extremely weak. We may bind the reason to this fact that the only feeding channel of the youth in this field is not the educational institutions. In other words, in these three countries the opinion that "the quality of the individual life is not only provided by means of institutionalized structures or by those structures that are conducted by the government, it can also be provided in the family of in different social groups", is at a significant level of the social awareness. If we pay attention to the percentage in this category, it was the same in the "promising, redemptive and acquisitive education" and the associations of the Turkish youth were at the highest level (%47,45).
Information Provider/Educator- Learning Education: When education and learning are mentioned the initial things that come to mind, as already mentioned above will be the components of the education and learning. The distribution of the associations obtained in the study is as follows as per the countries: Turkey: %9,46; USA: %47,73; Russia: %21,96, Ukraine: %19,21.
When the data obtained from the research are examined, it is seen that, the youth of the USA (%47,73) has developed the greatest number of associations in this category. On the other hand, while the Russian youth developed by 21,96% and the Ukrainian developed by 9,21 %, the Turkish youth developed very few associations in terms of percentage frequency. When we examine the associations of the youth in this direction, it is observed that the associations are individual. On the other hand, the youth of the other countries are generally likeminded and the words associated by most young people are relative: (children, primary education, education faculty, learning, books, high school, secondary school, class, class, teenager, fundamental, school, art, activities, sexual education, kindergarten, preschool, after school programs, reading, assignment, student, interesting, baby, understanding, informed, science, researcher, state school, library, teacher, Sunday school, learning with experience) This shows that the "education of the youth" primarily evokes the concepts that relate education and learning and information obtainment among the youth of the USA. The situation that the Russian and the Ukrainian students develop more associations comparing to the Turkish points out that in these two countries the education and the learning system tend to education and learning to a great extent. That is to say, this evokes what it should evoke. This is why the students of the USA have recalled significantly less and low frequency of words especially in the category related to the quality of the individual and the social life (Social: 2,53%; Individual:3,62%).
Empty, Irregular and Forced Education: When the data obtained in the research are examined, it will be observed that the youth have developed associations which reveal their criticizing subconscious about the education-learning and its components (Turkey 7,13%; USA 13,83%; Russia 3,12 %; Ukraine 2,84%). When the topic is viewed from another point, it draws attention that education is considered as empty, irregular and fatigue, and even there is no need for education.
Compared to the other fields of association, this category is the one that associations are developed in low ratios by the youth of the all countries. Its draws attention that especially the youth of the USA developed the association more frequently (13,83%). When the data of the research are examined, the associations developed by the youth of the USA indicates that the education does not have the demanded standards: Entertainment, the time of sleeping, story hour, game, simple, easy, insufficient, costumes, advertiser, low ratio in leaving the school, yelling out, sometime stupid, passing empty, low standards, neglectful, girls and boys club, inpatient, deficient, ineffective. The data are also confirmed by the Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research [SETA] research which was revealed by a report that the USA university education has been in troubles for long years now (Siyaset Ekonomi ve Toplum Arastirmalari Vakfi [SETA], 2009). The associations developed by the youth of Russia and Ukraine are at an extremely low level (Russia 3,12 %; Ukraine 2,84%). When compared to this category the increase in the associations that are developed in other categories reveal that the youth of the country has a positive opinion on education. Yet in the general evaluations of the associations, the difference in the frequency percentages of the positive and the negative associations is meaningful (while Ukraine develops the highest associations by 94,11% I, Russia follows by 92,10 %, USA by 74 % , and Turkey by 65,84%).
When the associations developed by the Turkish youth are viewed, this category looks like the one in which lowest number of associations are developed, that is by 7,13%. As it has already been mentioned, while the associations have the quality of hope and expectations to a greater extent (47,45%), it draws attention that the Turkish youth have developed the negative associations with the highest ratio (34,16%). When both data are taken into consideration, the associations that are produced among the "empty, irregular and the forced" become more meaningful with the ratio of 7,13%.
When the associations of the Turkish youth in this category are examined, it will be observed that the most of them are well-intentioned, constructive and have the meaning that "the intention from the heart is to make it better": Insufficiency, disbelief, complexity, alcohol, budget deficit, communism, disaster, heedless, imprecise, lack of purpose, fatigue, dispute, stereotype, maverick, uncared, free time, emptiness, defected, trouble, smoke, irregular, criticism, insect, disappointment, land slip, irrelevance, bad education, unplanned, scandal, routine, cigarette, inefficient, bureaucracy, amelioration, economic crises, cost, exploitation. From these especially the associations like careless (must be cared about education), trouble (education must be trouble free); smoke (the youth should be raised with an open future), irregular (education is the one which is regular), inefficient (In fact education is the one which is efficient); amelioration (education responds to expectations), maverick (education requires carefulness and preciousness) and uncared (education required to be cared about) have the qualities which exactly defend this opinion.
(150) student from Turkey, (61) students from USA, (37) students from Russia and (35) students from Ukraine have participated in the research conducted about the associations of the university students related to the "education of the youth". The students have responded in writing to the openended question "What does the youth's education evoke to you?" with associating concepts. In the performed research 284 associations from Turkey, 122 associations from the USA, 68 associations from Russia, 76 associations from Ukraine have been developed. The associational concepts that the university youth have about "education of the youth" are classified with the help of qualitative and quantitative evaluations and analyzed in terms of the branches they are improved, positive and negativeness and the kinds of difference they display according to other countries.
In the light of the frequency agglomerations of the obtained data, considering by how many people an association was developed, how many young people agree on the associations and which are the individually developed associations, to what extent the associations have positive and negative qualities and by examining if the associations can be classified together in categories, these approaches were classified in six categories (promising, redemptive, acquisitive education, the education that increases the quality of a new social life, guided, intentional and forced (compulsive), the education that increases the quality of the individual life, information provider/educator-learning education; empty, irregular and forced education).
As per the results of the research, it is seen that the students developed individual associations to a great extent (71,84-66,18 %). The fact that the frequently repeated one of these associations has a positive quality, is an important data from the point of organizing the education and learning. The evaluation of the associations based on the countries and categories is very important from the point of Turkey.
When the associations are analyzed, it is seen that especially the Turkish students have developed more individual associations which express that the teachers should use richer associative concepts and arguments. The content of the courses must be reviewed towards the idea that the content of the courses are oriented to life. In addition, the content and information should be updated.
The general qualities of the negative associations reveal that the students view their educations more critically. These associations can be considered as the data for developing programs. Continuity in education, alignment; controlling frequently and detecting the defects for full learning constitute an important phase of program development. Especially, the situation that the Turkish students develop critical associations to a great extent makes it necessary to review the exiting system as soon as possible and to improve the necessary parts.
One of the principles of learning "being tended to the student", points out which student will be able to learn what and to what extent. If some students find an educational activity very good, it will provide the maximum learning for those students. The negative associations obtained in the researches indicate if students are satisfied by the education activities or not. It is also possible to find the reasons of their dissatisfaction, if students are not satisfied by the education activities. Therefore, the obtained data will provide a light to the teachers indicating in which direction they should be developing their teaching skills.
The research that provides significant data related to the benefits or the satisfaction of the students in Turkish Higher Education System comparing to others, has the quality to provide a route map to the plan and program developers, showing the parts that they must put an emphasis. As the 47,45% of the Turkish students view the education as a gate of hope and redemption or as they have the opinion that this expectation is not met; and as they develop associations related to social, individual gains or that it does not meet these expectations, points out that the youth have great expectations. The ones among these associations which point out that the "education and learning is compulsive, guided" is significantly high (11,44%) -comparing to other countries-, indicates that the activities in the system are not organized with willingness or voluntarily. When the associations related to the fact that the education and the learning activities are in fact empty and they are conducted irregularly and inattentively are regarded, the opinion having tendency to the necessity to review the programs gains even greater significance.
As a conclusion, associations are the real points that give directions both to the intellectual and the kinesthetic intellect of the individual. For the individual, to be able to provide a real and positive learning, it will be more appropriate to provide living environments that will shape, distinguish or reestablish the associations, rather than changing the target behavior in the education and learning. This research could shed a light on the existing problems together with the those which will appear is future, by presenting associations which represent "what will be understood" by the students who are the most important and the main actors of the education and learning.
The research group was maintained narrow due to the difficulties in data collecting and analyzing process. In order to obtain more incisive data, it is necessary to maintain a wider working group. In order to see if the obtained data differs depending on the sex, age, high school institution and on other variables, the students which will be entered in the working groups should be provided to have the diversity for such evaluations. In order to be able to interpret the data obtained from the Turkish students in comparison with other countries, there should be large number of countries in the research. It must be researched that if the class atmosphere, teacher behaviors and class activities are effective on the students' associations about their education or not. If they are, it should also be examined in terms of categorical quality they bare.
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a PhD. Cengiz SIMSEK is an Assist. Prof in the field of Educational Programs and Training. His interest area includes practice of creative thinking, practice and objectives in secondary schools, intelligence developing games, and learning and teaching methods and techniques. Correspondence: Fatih University, Faculty of Education, Educational Sciences Department. 34500, Büyükçekmece, Istanbul/Turkey. E-mail: csimsek@fatih. edu.tr & firstname.lastname@example.org. Tel: +90 530 5400544, +90 212 8663300/2827, Fax: +90 212 8663462.…