The Effect of Organizational Commitment on Employee Reactions to Educational Training: An Evaluation Using the Kirkpatrick Four-Level Model

Article excerpt

The study aims at exploration of causal relationship among golf club employees 'training reactions, training learning, training behaviors and organization commitment (result level) with Kirkpatrick's four-level evaluation model as the foundation of ideas and verification of causal model. With questionnaire survey, we gather sample in convenience sampling in central Taiwan for empirical study. Effective sample is 494 persons who responded to hypothesis of the purpose and validation study through SEM statistics technique. From SEM statistics, overall fit indexes pass theory threshold. Empirical results show golf club employees' training reactions affect the result of organization commitment through training learning and training behaviors. Thus, training learning and training behaviors are mediating in overall causal model. The conclusion of the study is golf club employees show stronger learning achievements and learning behaviors when they have better reactions to education training. They have, as a result, higher organization commitment. The key to promote organization commitment is to enhance golf club employees' positive reactions after education training to have stronger learning achievements and learning behaviors. It is hoped that findings in this study will help proprietors of golf clubs understand how employees feel after education training. We also offer suggestions for reference of golf club proprietors in operation management.

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1. Introduction

Leisure sports have become common in Taiwan people thanks to economic development, open society, awareness of health and sports programs on media. Among various leisure sports, we are seeing rapid growth of number of golf players. Other than basic needs of leisure sport, golf is a major medium of social intercourse and leisure. As demand grows, golf market means a huge business opportunity. Proprietors invested a great amount of funds in golf clubs everywhere to meet market demand. This shows great potential of golf market. Yet, the result is consumers have more selections and competition becomes tougher among golf clubs. High amount of funds means high barrier of retreat. Proprietors invested lots of funds in hardware at golf clubs. Consumers are no longer satisfied with only hardware. Only those with highly different service quality meet customers' expectations to win competitors.

For golf clubs that provide service as product, employees are the most important asset. Service is provided in different ways and quality is subject to service providers who often restraint service quality control. It is difficult to convey products in consistence, have good education training, apply skills from training into work and make employees meet professional quality requirements in order to have good results.

A number of studies have shown that results of education training affect overall performance of an organization such as productivity, turnover rate, absence rate and organization commitment, etc. (Huang, 2001; Acton & Golden, 2003; Gberevbie, 20 10). Organization commitment brings strong psychological attachment of employees, enhances their will to serve at the organization and become loyal to the organization. It is an important intangible asset of a company. With high organization commitment, employees have lower turnover rate and absence rate but higher productivity.

In addition to reactions of golf club employees after education training, we also explore the relation among employees' training learning, training behaviors and organization commitment in order to understand golf club employees' behavior model after education training and discuss the causal relationship. It is hoped that findings in this study will enable golf club proprietors better understand overall evaluation of their employees after education training and help proprietors pay more attention to essential content of education training for due education training. …